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Fundamentals Of Nursing (Nurs101) Final Exam Study Guide

John Marsh
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Final Exam Study Guide

Wingate University

Fundamentals of Nursing (Nurs101)

Final Exam Study Guide
IV Therapy (4)
-NS 0.9% NaCl (iso)
 Expand volume, dilute medications, keep vein open
 Fluid resuscitation
-D5W (hypo)
 Isotonic until inside the body, glucose is metabolized and becomes hypotonic
 DON’T give to infants or head injury pts.
o May cause cerebral edema
-D5 ½ NS (D5NS) (hyper)
 Used for Na and volume replacement
 Go slow
 Monitor BP, Pulse and quality of lung sounds and serum Na and urine output
– IV fluids used for hypovolemia
 Isotonic (0.9% NaCl, or LR) NORMAL SALINE
 Then LR if not working
 Fluid volume deficit
-effect on intravascular space with isotonic, hypotonic & hypertonic solutions
 Isotonic: fluid remains in the IVS w/o ant net flow
 HYPERtonic: water moves out of cells and in to the IVS, causing the cells to shrink
 HYPOtonic: solution moves out of the IVS and into the cells, causing the cell to swell
o NEVER on pt. w/ neurological issue or cerebral edema
2. Prime a primary IV solution
 Open clamp and prime tubing, close clamp
 Removes air from tubing and preserves sterility
 Air embolism is a potential complication of any intravenous therapy
 The way to control bubbles: Close the roller clamp on the tubing before spiking the IV bag. Hang
the IV bag from an IV pole before priming the tubing. Fill the drip chamber by squeezing it until it
is one third to one half full before priming the tubing. Use the roller clamp to control the flow at a
rate that allows you to invert the injection ports before the fluid reaches them and to tap them as
the fluid fills them. Use the roller clamp to control the flow at a rate that minimizes turbulence,
which can create bubbles, and at a rate that allows you to check for bubbles and to tap and invert
the tubing to remove any air you see.

3. Calculate IV drip rates to include drops per minute, mL/hr & .
4. Place an IV on an infusion pump at the prescribed rate
6. Identify complications of IV therapy (S & S)
 Tip of the catheter can break off, creating an embolus
 Infiltration (fluid leaks into surrounding tissue)
o Signs: coolness, swelling, pallor, tenderness, skin blanching
 Venous access device-related infection
 Phlebitis (inflammation of the vein)
o Red warm, edema
o Remove line immediately
 Thrombus (blood clot)
 Speed shock: the body’s reaction to a substance that is injected into the circulatory
system too rapidly; too rapid a rate
 Fluid overload: too large a volume of fluid is infused
 Air embolism: air in the circulatory system
o Pinch off cath or secure system to prevent entry of air
o Place pt. on L side in trendenburg position
Nutrition (4)
-Prealbumin: earliest indicator of protein malnutrition
 Short term- CURRENT
-Albumin: long half life (transports medications)
 Takes a while to change- CHRONIC
-warfarin daily (blood thinner)
 AVOID excess Vitamin K
-High potassium= avocado
-BEST lab test for nutritional status: PREALBUMIN
** stress response  blood glucose levels
4-Identify developmental nutritional considerations.
 Growth: infancy, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional needs
 Activity increases nutritional needs
 Age-related changes in metabolism and body composition
 Nutritional needs lower off in adulthood ( BMR)
 Fewer calories required in adulthood b/c of decreased BMR
o Protein (meat), Vit K (leafy greens), carbs (pasta)
11-Describe therapeutic diets commonly found in health care facilities.
o Watch how long pt. is on it (can cause sepsis)
 Clear liquids
 Full liquids
 Soft
 Puree
 Cardiac (2g Na, low fat, low cholesterol)
 Diabetic (carbohydrate counting)
 Eternal feedings
o Short term- NG tube
 Keep head elevated (@ least 30 degrees)
 Turn off 20 mins prior to laying down
 Vomiting, aspiration
o Long term- PEG/ J tube
 TPN (total parenteral nutrition
o Through central line (dextrose 10%)
o Sterile tech (b/c central line acquired infection)
 Tube feedings- DON’T lie pt flat
 COPD need calorie count
 Assess nutrition for pts. w/ burns, nurgeries, trauma, sepsis
o They need mor



Fundamentals Of Nursing (Nurs101) Final Exam Study Guide

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