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(ABIO 121) Bioflix Activity Protein Synthesis-Rna Processing

Sandra Watson
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Mastering Biology Chapter 17 ABIO121 Assignment.

  • UniversityUniversity at Albany
  • CourseGeneral Biology Ii (ABIO 121)

Mastering Biology Chapter 17 Assignment No. 7
Item 1
The central paradigm of biochemistry holds that information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. The process
of making protein from the mRNA is called translation. Translation is carried out by the ribosome, which
binds to the mRNA and binds tRNA, which recognizes the codons on the mRNA and brings the appropriate
amino acid with it. The ribosome forms the peptide bond between the new amino acid and the growing peptide
The process of translation, or protein synthesis, is a crucial part of the maintenance of living organisms.
Proteins are constantly in use and will break down eventually, so new ones must always be available. If protein
synthesis breaks down or stops, then the organism dies.
Item 2
DNA polymerase is very accurate and rarely makes a mistake in DNA replication. Occasionally, however, an
error in replication, known as a point mutation, is introduced. There are two general categories of point
mutations—frameshift mutations (also called base-pair insertions or base-pair deletions) and base substitution
mutations (shown in the diagram).
Base substitution mutations and Frameshift mutations
If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors, the replicated strand would have the following
sequence of nucleotides:

Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift, base
substitution, or neither), as compared to the correct sequence shown above.
A base substitution mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong nucleotide base as it
synthesizes a new strand of DNA. A frameshift mutation can occur if the DNA polymerase leaves out a
nucleotide or adds an extra nucleotide to the sequence. Certain forms of cancer occur because of mutations
in DNA sequences that are located in so-called mutational hotspots. These hotspots are locations in the DNA
sequence where mutations occur more often than in other places.



(ABIO 121) Bioflix Activity: Protein Synthesis-Rna Processing

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