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ACCT504 Accounting Transactions And Encounters With Some Events DeVry University

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DeVry University

ACCT504 Accounting Transactions And Encounters With Some Events DeVry University

Every individual performs some kind of economic activity. A salaried person gets salary and spends to
buy provisions and clothing, for children’s education, construction of house, etc. A sports club formed
by a group of individuals, a business run by an individual or a group of individuals, a local authority like
Calcutta Municipal Corporation, Delhi Development Authority, Governments, either Central or State, all
are carrying some kind of economic activities. Not necessarily all the economic activities are run for any
individual benefit; such economic activities may create social benefit i.e. benefit for the public, at large.
Anyway such economic activities are performed through ‘transactions and events’. Transaction is used
to mean ‘a business, performance of an act, an agreement’ while event is used to mean ‘a happening, as a
consequence of transaction(s), a result.’
An individual invests `2,00,000 for running a stationery business. On 1st January, he purchases goods for
` 1,15,000 and sells for ` 1,47,000 during the month of January. He pays shop rent for the month ` 5,000
and finds that still he has goods worth ` 15,000 in hand. The individual performs an economic activity.
He carries on a few transactions and encounters with some events. Is it not logical that he will want to
know the result of his activity?
UNIT
OVERVIEW
Procedure of Accounting
Using the financial
Information
Generating
Financial Information
Recording
Input
Posting to
ledger
Preparation
of trial
balance
Preparation
of final
accounts
Internal users
• Board of
Directors
• Partners
• Managers
• Officers
External users
• Investors
• Lenders
• Suppliers
• Govt. agencies
• Customers
Communicating
Information to
users
Economic
events and
transactions
measured
in financial
terms
Accounting Cycle Output
Identification of
transaction
Classifying Summarising Analyzing Interpreting Communicating
Recording of
transactions
in the books
of original
entry
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 1.3
We see that the individual, who runs the stationery business, earns a surplus of ` 42,000.
`
Goods sold 1,47,000
Goods in hand 15,000
1,62,000
Less : Goods purchased 1,15,000
Shop rent paid 5,000 (1,20,000)
Surplus 42,000
Earning of ` 42,000 surplus is an event; also having the inventories in hand is another event, while purchase
and sale of goods, investment of money and payment of rent are transactions.
Similarly, a municipal corporation got government grant ` 500 lakhs for adult education; it spent ` 250 lakhs
for purchasing literacy kits, paid ` 200 lakhs to the tutors and is left with a balance of ` 50 lakhs. These are
also transactions and events.
Similarly, the Central Government raised money through taxes, paid salaries to the employees, and spent
on various developmental activities. Whenever receipts of the Government are more than expenses it has
surplus, but if expenses are more than receipts it runs in deficit. Here raising money through various sources
can be termed as transaction and surplus or deficit at the end of the accounting year can be termed as an
event.
So, everybody wants to keep records of all transactions and events and to have adequate information about
the economic activity as an aid to decision-making. Accounting discipline has been developed to serve this
purpose as it deals with the measurement of economic activities involving inflow and outflow of economic
resources, which helps to develop useful information for decision-making process.
Accounting has universal application for recording transactions and events and presenting suitable
information to aid decision-making regarding any type of economic activity ranging from a family function
to functions of the national government. But hereinafter we shall concentrate only on business activities
and their accounting because the objective of this study material is to provide a basic understanding on
accounting for business activities. Nevertheless, it will give adequate knowledge to think coherently of
accounting as a field of study for universal application.
The growth of accounting discipline is closely associated with the development of the business world. Thus,
to understand accounting as a field of study for universal application, it is best identified with recording of
business transactions and communication of financial information about business enterprise to facilitate
decision-making. The aim of accounting is to meet the information needs of the rational and sound decisionmakers,
and thus, called the language of business.
1.2 MEANING OF ACCOUNTING
The Committee on Terminology set up by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants formulated
the following definition of accounting in 1961:
“Accounting is the art of recording, classifying, and summarising in a significant manner and in terms of
money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of a financial character, and interpreting the result
thereof.”
1.4 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ACCOUNTING
As per this definition, accounting is simply an art of record keeping. The process of accounting starts by
first identifying the events and transactions which are of financial character and then be recorded in the
books of account. This recording is done in Journal or subsidiary books, also known as primary books. Every
good record keeping system includes suitable classification of transactions and events as well as their
summarisation for ready reference. After the transactions and events are recorded, they are transferred to
secondary books i.e. Ledger. In ledger, transactions and events are classified in terms of income, expense,
assets and liabilities according to their characteristics and summarised in profit and loss account and balance
sheet. Essentially the transactions and events are to be measured in terms of money. Measurement in terms
of money means measuring at the ruling currency of a country, for example, rupee in India, dollar in U.S.A.
and like. The transactions and events must have at least in part, financial characteristics. The inauguration
of a new branch of a bank is an event without having financial character, while the business disposed of by
the branch is an event having financial character. Accounting also interprets the recorded, classified and
summarised transactions and events.
However, the above-mentioned definition does not reflect the present day accounting function. The
dimension of accounting is much broader than that described in the above definition. According to the
above definition, accounting ends with interpretation of the results of the financial transactions and events
but in the modern world with the diversification of management and ownership, globalisation of business
and society gaining more interest in the functioning of the enterprises, the importance of communicating
the accounting results has increased and therefore, this requirement of communicating and motivating
informed judgement has also become the part of accounting as defined in the widely accepted definition
of accounting, given by the American Accounting Association in 1966 which treated accounting as
“The process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed
judgments and decisions by the users of accounts.”
In 1970, the Accounting Principles Board (APB) of American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
enumerated the functions of accounting as follows:
“The function of accounting is to provide quantitative information, primarily of financial nature, about
economic entities, that is needed to be useful in making economic decisions.”
Thus, accounting may be defined as the process of recording, classifying, summarising, analysing and
interpreting the financial transactions and communicating the results thereof to the persons interested in
such information.
1.2.1 Procedural aspects of Accounting
On the basis of the above definitions, procedure of accounting can be basically divided into two parts:
(i) Generating financial information and
(ii) Using the financial information.
Generating Financial Information
1. Recording – This is the basic function of accounting. All business transactions of a financial character,
as evidenced by some documents such as sales bill, pass book, salary slip etc. are recorded in the books
of account. Recording is done in a book called “Journal.” This book may further be divided into several
subsidiary books according to the nature and size of the business. Students will learn how to prepare
journal and various subsidiary books in chapter 2.
2. Classifying – Classification is concerned with the systematic analysis of the recorded data, with a
view to group transactions or entries of one nature at one place so as to put information in compact

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ACCT504 Accounting Transactions And Encounters With Some Events DeVry University

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