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Advanced Concepts Of Adult Nursing (NUR 4120) Traumatic Brain Injury

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John Marsh
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Nova Southeastern University

Advanced Concepts Of Adult Nursing (NUR 4120)

Traumatic Brain Injury

raumatic Brain Injury
Head Injury
 Includes any trauma to the scalp, skull or brain.
 Term used primarily to signify craniocerebral trauma
Epidemiology
 40% of traumatic injuries include the brain
 1.4 million persons are treated and released with TBI (Traumatic
Brain Injury)
 50,000 people die
 235,000 people are hospitalized with TBI
Etiology
 Mild concussion to coma and death
 Most serious form (TBI)
 Falls: 28%
 MVC: 20%
 Assaults: 11%
 Highest risk: 15-19 yrs.
 Males> females
Pathophysiology
 Not all damage occurs at moment of impact
 Two forms
 Primary injury
 Initial damage to the brain
 Contusion, laceration, torn blood vessels
 Secondary injury
 Evolves over hours or days
 Results from inadequate delivery of nutrients and
oxygen
Cranial Vault Contents
 Brain
 Blood
 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Monro-Kellie Doctrine
 Cranial vault is closed system
 If one system increases in volume→two others must decrease
in volume
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Normal ICP = 5 – 15 mmHg
3 constant volumes in skull (chg. in one leads to shift in other)
Brain mass (tissue) 80% Vascular (blood) 10% CSF 10%
Central Nervous Sys. Peripheral Nervous Sys.
Autonomic Nervous Sys
Brain (Sympathetic) 12 pr. Cranial nerves
Spinal Cord (Parasympathetic) 31 pr. Spinal nerves
Region & Functions
Cerebrum- Interpret sensory input; control skeletal muscle activity; process
intellect & emotions; contain skills memory
Diencephalon – Conduct sensory & motor impulses; regulate autonomic
nervous system; regulate & produce hormones; mediate emotional
response
Brain Stem – Conduction pathway; site of decussating of tracts;
contains resp. nuclei; helps regulate skeletal muscles
Cerebellum – Processes inf.; provides info necessary for balance, posture
& coordinated muscle movement
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Advanced Concepts Of Adult Nursing (NUR 4120) Traumatic Brain Injury

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