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Advanced Nursing Practice (NURS 618) EXAM 1 Study Guide

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Patho EXAM 1 study guide

McNeese State University

Pathophysiology For Advanced Nursing Practice (NURS 618)

Exam 1 for Nursing 518
Review for Exam 1 Revised January 28, 2015
Read all chapters Units 1,2,3,4,5 (Chapters 1-22) as ONLY these chapters are on the
exam. Details: 50 multiple questions in 60 minutes.
Review:
Infection and cellular level events, first to arrive– neutrophils etc. – Chapter 13
Leukocytes (WBC’S)
 Serve various roles in immunity and inflammation
 Originate in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the lymphoid tissues of the
body
 Crucial to our defense against disease
 Responsible for immune response
 Identify and destroy cancer cells and they participate in the inflammatory response
and wound healing
 Lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow from lymphoid stem cells
Neutrophils
 First to arrive at the site of infection*****
 Responsible for maintaining normal host defense again invading bacteria and fungi
 Constitute 55‐65% of WBC’s
 Originate in the myoblasts found in bone barrow, do not normally appear in the
peripheral circulation
 Matured neutrophils are referred to as segs because of their segmented nucleus
development from stem cell to mature neutrophils takes approx. 2 weeks; at this
point the neutrophil enters the blood stream. Neutrophilia is an increase in immature
neutrophils (“band” forms) seen in peripheral blood. It is most commonly seen in
acute infections and tissue injuries
 After neutrophils are released form the bone marrow, they circulate for 4‐8 hrs before
moving to the tissues
Eosinophils
 Increase during allergic reactions and parasitic infections
 In allergic reactions it is thought that they release enzymes or chemical mediators
that detoxify the agents associated with allergic reactions
 In parasitic infections, these use surface markers to attach themselves to the
parasite and then release hydrolytic enzymes that kill
Basophils
 Contain heparin, an anticoagulant; histamine, a vasodilator; and other mediators of
inflammation
 Involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions
 Are the main functional cells of the immune system
 Function in the lymph nodes or spleen is to defend against micro‐organisms through
the immune response
There are three types of lymphocytes:
1. B cells – they were 1st recognized as a separate population in the bursa of Fabricius
birds and bursa equivalent organs (bone marrow) in mammals. They differentiate to form
anti‐body producing plasma cells and are involved in humoral‐mediated immunity.
2. T cells – Activate other cells of the immune system (helper T cells) and are
involved in cell mediated immunity (cytotoxic cells)
3. Natural killer cells – Participate in innate or natural immunity and their function is to
destroy foreign cells
Terms:
Prevalence – page 7 & 262, Incidence – page 7 & 262, Mortality – page 8, morbidity – page
8, Dysplasia – page 1590
Prevalence – The number of ACTIVE cases at any given time
Incidence – The number of NEW cases at any given time
Mortality – cause/rate of death in a given population
Morbidity – Describes the effects an illness has on a person’s life
Dysplasia – Deranged cell growth of a specific tissue, associated with chronic irritation or
inflammation. Most often seen in the respiratory tract, uterine cervix, and metaplastic
squamous epithelium. It is usually reversible after the irritating cause has been removed.
Strongly indicated as a precursor for cancer. It is an adaptive process that may or may not
lead to cancer. Babies who are vented for a long period of time may develop bronchopulmonary
dysplasia (BPD).

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Advanced Nursing Practice (NURS 618) EXAM 1 Study Guide

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