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Anatomy And Physiology I (BIOL1205) Muscles Review

John Marsh
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Fairleigh Dickinson University

Anatomy and Physiology I (BIOL1205)

Muscles Review – A&P for those in the nursing program Fall semester with Dr.M difficult material

Chapter 9-10: Muscle Tissues/Systems_ Guidelines
A. Muscle Types: Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
B. Similarities:
1. All muscle cells are elongated = muscle fibers;
2. For contraction, two kinds of myofilaments (actin and myosin);
3. The cell membrane of a muscle cell is called “sarcolemma”, while the
cytoplasm of a muscle cell is called “sarcoplasm”.
C. Skeletal Muscle Characteristics:
1. long, thin and multi-nucleated fibers;
2. striations;
3. voluntary control;
4. arranged into packages, attach to and cover the bony skeleton;
5. contracts rapidly & vigorously, but tired easily; may exert great force.
D. Cardiac Muscle Characteristics:
1. network of branched fibers connected by gap junctions
2. only in heart;
3. striations;
4. involuntary control;
E. Smooth Muscle Characteristics:
1. lacks striations;
2. walls of hollow visceral organs and blood vessels;
3. involuntary control;
4. contractions are slow & sustained.
5. Elasticity = the ability to bounce back to original length
A. Structure
1. Connective Tissue Coverings:
a. Wrapped in a thin, delicate layer of CT called endomysium.
b. Fibers bundled together into groups called fascicles
d. Fascicle wrapped in a second layer of CT, perimysium.
d. Skeletal muscle covered by a third layer of CT, epimysium
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
1. Each muscle fiber is composed of myofibrils;
o composed of two types of protein filaments
o Thick filaments primarily composed of the protein myosin;
o Thin filaments primarily composed of the protein actin.
o Striations due the arrangement of thick and thin filaments
o A-Band = dark area = overlapping of thick and thin filaments
o I-Band = light area = thin filaments alone.



Anatomy And Physiology I (BIOL1205) Muscles Review

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