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(BIO 2402) Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Exam

Sandra Watson
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Final Exam Anatomy and Physiology 2


Baylor University


Human Anatomy & Phys Ii (BIO 2402)

Final Exam Anatomy and Physiology 2!!!!!
Metabolism = II (2)
● glycolysis, krebs cycle, ETC, which one is false
○ glycolysis : the process of oxidizing one glucose molecule into two pyruvate
■ NAD is reduced to NADH
■ 2 ATP’s are formed
■ uses: glucose phosphate, fructose phosphate, fructose biphosphate,
dihydroxyacetone phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate,
biphosphoglycerate, phosphoglycerate, phosphoenol pyruvate, pyruvate
○ krebs : oxidizing pyruvate into 2 CO2, 3 NADH, most ATP produced from this!
■ technically only produces 1 ATP per cycle
■ uses: citrate, isocitrate, succinyl coA, alpha ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate,
succinate, fumarate, malate
■ glucose to pyruvate=oxidized, pyruvate to lactate=reduced, lactate
to pyruvate=oxidized, pyruvate to glucose=reduced
○ ETC : pumps electrons through complexes 1-4, to transfer electrons to O2
molecules (not H2O molecules) Cytosolic NADH goes through malate asparate
shuttle to complex one, and glycerol phosphate shuttle moves brown fat cells
from cytosol to complex 2, only energizes 2 proton pumps
○ mitochondrial NAD goes to complex 1, mitochondrial FADH2 goes to complex 2
● when is CO2/O2 produced and needed
○ glycolysis is anaerobic
■ 1 CO2 is produced in glycolysis
○ krebs cycle you only need CO2
■ you need GDP for substrate level phosphorylation to form GTP to then
form ATP
■ co2 is produced as well
○ for ETC you need an NAD coming in
○ if you don’t have oxygen then you’ll have fermentation
Endocrine = IIIII IIIII IIIII I (11)
● Low blood glucose, low glucocorticoids, increased body temp → CRH (hypothalamus) →
ACTH (adenohypophysis) → steroids (adrenal cortex) → increases Blood Glucose and
Blood Pressure
○ ACTH : increases blood glucose
○ Mineralocorticoids: (aldosterone) Na/ Cl retention, K+ excretion, increase BP
○ Glucocorticoids: (cortisol/hydrocortisone) lipolysis, proteolysis,
gluconeogenesis, anti-inflammatory



(BIO 2402) Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Exam


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