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BS 161 Cell and Molecular Biology Double Bilayer Membrane Michigan State University

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Michigan State University

BS 161 Cell and Molecular Biology Double Bilayer Membrane Michigan State University

Outline/overview the 3 stages of photosynthesis separated into the light-dependent and light-independent reactions.
●Light Dependent
ight Capture (occurs in Thylakoid Membrane via Photosystems)
ormation of ATP + NADPH (occurs in Stroma)
●Light Independent
Carbon Fixation (occurs in Stroma)
Describe the visible spectrum of light and identify thewavelength(s)/color(s) that are absorbed/reflected by plants.
●Visible Light Spectrum – R.O.Y.G.B.I.V
●Violet-Blue Light: 400 nm to Red light: 700 nm;
●Shorter Wavelength = More Energetic;
●Absorbed: R,O,Y,B,I,V; Reflected: G.
Explain the photoelectric effect.
●Electrons are removed from a molecule by photons hitting the molecule
List the different types of pigments found in chloroplasts and identify whichwavelength(s)/color(s) of light each absorb/reflect.
●Carotenoids: Accessory pigment;
-Absorbs: blue and green light
-Reflects: red, orange, and yellow light
●Chlorophyll (Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b)
– Absorbs: violet-blue and red light
– Reflects: green light
– Only Chlorophyll a converts light energy to chemical energy
Explain why leaves that were once green in the spring, appear orange/red/yellow in the fall.
●The plant no longer produces chlorophyll. The carotenoids are reflecting the orange/red/yellow spectrum of the visible spectrum.
Explain the function of the hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic) on a photosystem
●Tethers the chlorophyll in the Thylakoid Membrane4.
Describe the general structure (i.e., the light-harvesting complex and the reaction center)
hotosystems (Thylakoid Membrane)
ntenna Complex: Captures photons and channels energyto the reaction center;
-Contains chlorophyll b and carotenoids;
Resonance Energy Transfer: Chlorophyll b from Antenna Complex

transfers photon (energy) to Chlorophyll a in the Reaction Center.
Reaction Center
– Contains Chlorophyll a (2 molecules in plants, 1 in bacteria)
Chlorophyll a is reduced by an electron donor(water);(H2O → O2)
II) Photon is transferred from(CLb)to(CLa)by Resonance Energy Transfer.
* Photon can be transferred by directly hitting the Reaction Center*II) Photoelectric Effect: electrons are ejected from chlorophyll a
III) Electron acceptor is reduced by Reaction Center;(plastoquinone (II) or ferredoxin(I))5.
Summarize the details of the light-dependent reactions.
●Primary Photoevent: Photosystem capture photons, which excites (CLb)
●Charge Separation:Excitation energy is transferred to the reaction center;Removing electron from (CLa) and donating to electronacceptor
●Electron Transport: Electrons are transported along anelectron transport system;NADP+ (final acceptor) reduced to NADH; Protons will bepumped into Thylakoid Space;
●Chemiosmosis: ATP is generatedby ATP Synthase.(Produced in Stroma)
Charge Separation
– excitation energy is transferred to the reaction center
– an electron is then donated to an acceptor molecule
Electron Transport
– electrons are transported along an electron transport system-
– protons are pumped into the thylakoid space; proton motive force
– proton motive force drives ATP synthase to make ATP
Draw/outline the photosynthetic electron transport chain,both as the Z-diagram and as a linear chain in the thylakoid membrane.
●Location: Thylakoid Membrane for Chloroplast;(Inner Membrane for Mitochondria)
●Final Electron Acceptor for Chloroplast: NADP+ → NADPH;(O2 → H2O for Mitochondria)
●Photosystem II:
ater oxidized by Plastoquinone
lastoquinone oxidized by B6F complex(enzyme in Thylakoid Membrane)
roton is pumped into Thylakoid Space by B6F Complex.
6F complex oxidized by Plastocyanin
lastocyanin is oxidized by Photosystem I Reaction Center
●Photosystem I:
hotosystem I Reaction Center oxidized by Ferredoxin
erredoxin oxidized by NADP+ through NADP reductase(enzyme in Thylakoid Membrane)BS 161 Cell and Molecular Biology Double Bilayer Membrane Michigan State University
ADP+ → NADPH(Produced in Stroma)
●List the 3 Contributions to Proton Motive Force


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