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Chapter 12 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History United States History, 1550 - 1877 (117)

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James Moore
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o Bred cattle for profit

o Crafted furniture

Oneida

Oneida: Utopian community founded in 1848 in upstate New York; the Perfectionist religious group practiced

“complex marriage” under leader John Humphrey Noyes

1836, small community originally formed in Putney, Vermont

“Complex marriage”: any man could propose sexual relations to any woman, who had the right to either reject

or accept his invitation

o Registered in a public record book

“Exclusive affections”: dangerous and destroyed harmony of the community

Indicted for adultery

1848, moved communities to Oneida—survived until 1881

Worldly Communities

Outsiders believed utopian communities to be cases of “voluntary slavery”

Spirituality-oriented communities: achieved longevity die to member devotion to teachings and rules laid down

by leaders

Worldly-oriented communities: lasted shorter periods of time due to internal divisions

Communitarianism: Social reform movement of the 19

th

century driven by the belief that by establishing small

communities based on common ownership of property, a less competitive and individualistic society could

developed

o Communitarian secular: person who plans or lives in a cooperative community

Robert Owen = most important

Appalled at degradation of early industrial workers

Created model factory village at New Lanark, Scotland

o Stick rules of work discipline + comfortable housing + free public education

o 1815, 1,500 employees = largest cotton manufacturing center in world

New Harmony: Community founded in Indiana by British industrialist Robert Owen in 1825; the short-lived New

Harmony Community of Equality was one of the few 19

th

century communal experiments not based on religious

ideology

o Hoped to create a “new moral world”

o Children removed from parents to be educated

Taught subordination to common good v. individual ambition

o Defended women’s rights

Access to education + right to divorce

No longer “enslaved” to husbands

Abandoned “false notions” of innate differences between men and women

o Residents fought over everything from community’s constitution to property distribution

Last only a few years

o Strongly influenced labor movement, educational reforms, and women’s rights advocates

Community of equals was possible

Religion and Reform

Most American’s didn’t join utopian societies

o Would have to give up property (essential to freedom) or marriage (essential to social order)

American’s moved to movements that either liberated them from:

o External restraints: slavery, war

o Internal “servitude”: drinking, illiteracy, tendency toward criminality

 

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Chapter 12 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History United States History, 1550 - 1877 (117)

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