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Chapter 13 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History

James Moore
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Mexican Cession: Treaty guaranteed to Mexican “male citizens” in the new territory “the free enjoyment of

their liberty and property” and “al the rights of Americans

o Designed to protect property of Mexican landowners in California

Original residents of area went from Spaniards, to Mexicans, to Americans and had to adjust as

immigrants would have

The Texas Borderland

Anglos: white settlers from East

o In search of land they expelled some Mexicans—including former allies


o Confined to unskilled agricultural or urban labor

o Some women took advantage of American laws and divorced husbands

During Civil War, some avoided draft by claiming Mexican citizenry

Race and Manifest Destiny

1840s—territorial expansion came to be seen as proof of innate superiority of the “Anglo-Saxon” race

John O’ Sullivan in Democratic Review: “Race” was the “key” to the “history of nations”

Annexation of all of Mexico failed in some part because its large, nonwhite Catholic population was unfit for

citizenship in a republic

Texas Constitution adopted after independence:

o Protected slavery

o Denied civil rights to Indians and blacks

o “Spanish” Mexicans were considered “white”

Mixed Mexican and Indian origins were “too Mexican” for democratic self-government

o New Mexico not allowed to become sate until 1912 because white immigration lagged

Gold-Rush California

Most of 1840s, 5x as many Americans emigrated to Oregon than to California

January 1848—gold discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains at a sawmill owned by Swiss

immigrant Johann A. Sutter

Gold Rush: The massive migration of Americans into California territory in the late 1840s and 1850s in pursuit of

gold, which was discovered there in 1848

o Non-Indian population went from 15,000 to 360,000 in 8 years

o Gold-rush migrants were mostly young men

o Women ran restaurants and boarding houses and worked as laundresses, cooks, and prostitutes

1860, men outnumber women 3 to 1

o Mining competition worsened racial conflicts

White miners organized extralegal groups that expelled Mexicans, Chileans, Chinese, French,

and Indians

o State imposed $20/mo. Tax on miners—drove many out of state

o Gold seekers

Chapter 13 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History

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