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Chapter 9 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History Glendale Community College

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James Moore
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To match NY’s success, other state borrowed tons of money for elaborate programs of canal construction

o 3,000 miles of canal built—network linking Atlantic states with Ohio and Mississippi valleys

Reduced cost of transportation

o Went bankrupt during economic depression that began in 1837

Railroads and Telegraphs

Railroads opened vast interior for settlement

o Stimulated coal mining for fuel and iron manufacturing for locomotives and rails

o First commercial railroad, work began 1828: Baltimore and Ohio

o By 1860, 30,000 miles of railroad networks

Telegraph made instantaneous communication possible throughout nation

o Invented in 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse

o 1844, Put into commercial operation

o Initially for businesses (especially newspapers), rather than individuals

o Helped speed flow of information and brought uniformity to prices throughout country

The Rise of the West

1790-1840, 4.5 million people crossed Appalachian Mountains

o Most migration occurred after War of 1812 (land-hungry settlers moved from east)

In the 6 years after end of was in 1815, 6 new states entered Union

o Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Mississippi, Maine

Settlers traveled in groups

o Arrived in west and coordinated with each other to clear land, build houses and barns, and establish

communities

o From South: small farmers and planters came with slaves to create new Cotton Kingdoms in

Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas

o From Upper South: farm families

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois

o From New England to New York

Upper Northwest—northern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin

Some were “squatters”—setting up farms on unoccupied land without legal title

Land purchased after 1820 at $1.25 an acre

o Cash or long-term credit from land speculators

West mirrored cultures of migrants

o Upper state NY and Upper Northwest resembled New England

Small towns, churches, schools

o Lower South resembled plantation-based society of Atlantic states

Settlers crosses territorial boundaries to claim land under jurisdiction of foreign countries

o 1810, American residents in West Florida rebelled and seized Baton Rouge—US annexed area

o Acquisition of East Florida wanted by Georgia and Alabama

Would rid refuge for fugitive slaves and hostile Seminole Indians

1818 Andrew Jackson led troops into area

National crisis—execute 2 British traders and Indian chiefs

Jackson withdrew

Spain aware they couldn’t defend territory

Sold area to US in Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 (negotiated by John Quincy Adams)

An International Borderland

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in Old Northwest

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Chapter 9 - Summary Give Me Liberty!: an American History Glendale Community College

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