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Chem 111 The Gaseous State

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Chem 111- Chapter 5 MWF
General Chemistry: The Gaseous State
Gas Laws
– Most substances composed of small molecules are gases under normal conditions or else
are easily vaporized liquids. The table lists selected gaseous substances and some of their
properties.

– Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit area of surface. A coin resting on a table
exerts a force, and therefore a pressure, downward on the table as a consequence of
gravity. The air above the table exerts an additional pressure on the table, because the air
is also being pulled downward by gravity.
– Pressure = Force/ Area
– The SI unit of pressure, kg/(m*s^2) , is given the name pascal (Pa), after the French
physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), who studied fluid pressure.


– The unit millimeters of mercury (mmHg), also called the torr (after Evangelista
Torricelli, who invented the mercury barometer in 1643), is a unit of pressure equal to
that exerted by a column of mercury 1 mm high at 0.00 degrees Celsius. The atmosphere
(atm) is a related unit of pressure equal to exactly 760 mmHg.
– The general relationship between the pressure P and the height h of a liquid column in a
barometer or manometer is:
5.2 Empiracal Gas Laws
– All gases under moderate conditions behave quite simply with respect to pressure,
temperature, volume, and molar amount. By holding any two of these physical properties
constant, it is possible to show a simple relationship between the other two. The

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Chem 111 The Gaseous State

 

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