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Concepts Of Maternal-Child Nursing And Families (NUR 4130) Professor Lewis Pediatric Exam 1 Notes

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Nova Southeastern University

Concepts Of Maternal-Child Nursing And Families (NUR 4130)

Peds Exam 1 – Professor Lewis, Pediatric Exam 1 Notes

Ch. 25 Growth & Development of the Newborn & Infant
Principles of Development
 Continuous process through life
 Orderly sequence
 Predictable but unique ranges
 Systems mature at different rates
 More rapid in early periods
 Cephalocaudal pattern  grow longer, head to tail
 Gross to refined skills
 Newborn/neonatal period of infancy  from birth to 28 days
 Infancy  28 days to 12 months
Growth & Development
 Nurse must be familiar w/normal development  while obtaining health hx, nurse can ask
parent/caregiver if the skill is present and when it was attained
 Ill or premature infants may exhibit delayed acquisition of physical growth and dev skills 
when assessing the growth and dev, use the infants adjusted age to determine expected
 Adjusted age  subtract the # of weeks that the infant was premature from the infant’s
chronological age
Physical Growth
 Ongoing assessments of growth are important so too rapid or inadequate growth can be
 Infants grow rapidly over the first 12 months  weight, length, head and chest
circumference are all indicators of growth
 Weight
o The avg newborn weighs 3.4 kg (7.5lb) at birth
o Newborns lose up to 10% of their body weight over the 1st week of life  then gain
30g/day and regains birth weight by 10-14 days of age
o Most infants double their birth weight by 4 months and triple by the time they are 1
 Height
o Avg newborn is 50cm (20in) long
o Length grows more quickly over the 1st 6 months
o By 12 months  length increased by 50%
 Head Circumference
o Avg head circumference of full term newborn  35cm (14in)
o Increases rapidly during 1st 6 months
o Avg of 10 cm (4in) gain from birth to 1 y/o
 Fontanel closure  posterior 6-8 weeks (2 months), anterior at 9-18 months  open for
brain to grow pg. 1179
 Teeth
o Occasionally and infant is born w/1 or more teeth  natal teeth  or dev them in
1st 28 days  neonatal teeth
o Majority do not have teeth when born  1st teeth erupt btwn ages 6 & 8 months 
primary teeth (deciduous teeth)
 Causes ↑ saliva & drooling
 Enzyme released w/teething causes mild diarrhea, facial skin irritation
 Slight fever may be associated; not high fever (normal)
o Gums around emerging tooth will usually swell  lower central incisors are usually
1st to appear followed by upper central incisors
o The avg 12-month old has 4-8 teeth
o Put toys in freezer to help w/inflammation or baby Orajel
 Stranger Anxiety pg. 973
o May develop at around the age of 8 months
o Previously happy and friendly infant may become clingy and whiny when
approached by strangers
o Stranger anxiety  indicator that the infant is recognizing themselves as separate
from others
o As the infant becomes more aware of new people/places they may view a stranger
as threatening even if parent is there
o Fam members that don’t see the child often  approach infant calmly and slowly w/
parent in sight  sometimes will prevent a sudden crying spell
 Separation Anxiety
o May start is last few months of infancy
o Infant becomes distressed when parent leaves  infant will eventually calm down &
become engaged w/caregiver
o 8 months’ protests loudly when mom leaves



Concepts Of Maternal-Child Nursing And Families (NUR 4130) Professor Lewis Pediatric Exam 1 Notes

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