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ENGR 2332 Mechanics of Materials University of North Texas

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University of North Texas

ENGR 2332 Mechanics of Materials University of North Texas

ENGR 2332
Mechanics of Materials
Lab No. 4
Tensile Test and Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Metal
By Austin Ciervo
February 22, 2018
lOMoARcPSD|5960618
Objective
The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with the principles and
capabilities of Universal Testing machines and carry out a tensile test on the given
specimens. The experiment will also help to understand how to evaluate ultimate stress,
fracture stress, percent elongation, percent reduction in area, elastic modulus and
modulus of toughness.
Background
Theory:
The purpose of a tensile test is to provide valuable information about a material
and its properties. By stretching a piece of material, you can determine how it will react
to forces being applied in tension. Tensile tests are important because the data given
from the test can be used to design and analyze engineering structures. Also, new
materials can be developed to suit a specific task.
Ultimate tensile stress (UTS) is the maximum stress that a material can
withstand while being stretched or pulled. The ultimate tensile stress of a material is
calculated by dividing the stress (F) placed on the material, generally expressed in terms
of pounds or tons per square inch of material by the cross-sectional area (A) of the
tested material.
UTS =
F
A
The fracture stress is the point of failure when a material is being stretched or
pulled. In most cases, the fracture stress is equal to the ultimate tensile stress.
The percent elongation or ductility of a material is the maximum elongation of
the specimen length divided by the initial specimen length. Where (Lx)
is the final
specimen length and (L0) is the initial specimen length.
Percent Elongation =
L
x
−L
0
L0
The reduction of area is the proportional reduction of the cross-sectional area of a
tensile test piece at the place of fracture measured after fracture. Where (A0) is the area
of initial cross-section and (Amin) is the minimum final area.
Percent reduction of area =
A
0
−A
min
A0
The elastic modulus (E), also known as Young’s modulus, is a measure of stiffness
of a solid material. It’s the relationship between stress and strain. It can be calculated by
dividing the tensile stress (σ) by the engineering extensional strain (ε).

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ENGR 2332 Mechanics of Materials University of North Texas

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