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Episodic And Long-Term Care Fluid Electrolytes Key Points

John Marsh
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Fluid Electrolytes key points-the primary regulator of extracellular fluid volume is:

University of Windsor

Nursing Care/Episodic and Long-term care

Lewis: Medical-Surgical Nursing in Canada, 3rd Edition
Chapter 19: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Imbalances
Key Points –
• Body fluids and electrolytes play an important role in homeostasis (the state of
equilibrium in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive
responses that promote healthy survival).
• Many diseases and their treatments have the ability to affect fluid and electrolyte
• Water is the primary component of the body, accounting for approximately 60% of
the body weight in the adult.
• The two major fluid compartments in the body are intracellular (within cells;
approximately two-thirds of body water) and extracellular (fluid spaces between cells;
one-third of body water).
• The measurement of electrolytes is important to the nurse in evaluating electrolyte
balance, as well as in determining the composition of electrolyte preparations.
• Osmosis is the movement of water between two compartments separated by a
membrane permeable to water but not to a solute. Water moves through the
membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute
concentration. Osmolality is important because it indicates the water balance of the
• In the metabolically active cell, there is a constant exchange of substances between
compartments, but no net gain or loss of water occurs.
• The major colloid in the vascular system contributing to the total osmotic pressure is
• The amount and direction of movement between the interstitium and the capillary are
determined by the interaction of (1) capillary hydrostatic pressure, (2) plasma oncotic
pressure, (3) interstitial hydrostatic pressure, and (4) interstitial oncotic pressure.
• If capillary or interstitial pressures are altered, fluid may abnormally shift from one
compartment to another, resulting in edema or dehydration.
• Fluid is drawn into the plasma space whenever there is an increase in the plasma



Episodic And Long-Term Care Fluid Electrolytes Key Points

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