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Foundations Of Nsg Practice (NUR 3829C) ATI Study Guide

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Florida Gulf Coast University

Foundations Of Nsg Practice (NUR 3829C)

Fundamentals of Nursing: the Art and Science of Nursing Care

Foundations ATI Study Guide

Foundations ATI Study Guide
Chapter 10- Medical and Surgical Asepsis
Asepsis: the absence of illness-producing microorganisms; the primary behavior being hand washing
HandeHygiene:euse antimicrobial soap or regular soap, or alcohol-based products
Three essential components of hand washing
-Soap
-Running water
-Friction
AdditionaleHygieneemeasures
-Covering of the mouth when coughing or sneezing
-Keep hair pulled back
-Keep nails short and clean
-Protective clothing
-Do not place items on the floor
-Do not shake linens
-Clean soiled areas first
-Use plastic bags for moist, soiled items
-Pour any liquids used for client care directly into the drain and avoid splattering to prevent spreading
droplets
-Prolonged exposure to airborn microorganisms can make sterile items nonsterile
Only sterile items may be in a sterile field
Consider any object held below the waist or above the chest contaminated
Microbes can over by gravity from a nonsterile item to a sterile item
-do not reach across or above a sterile field
Any sterile, non-waterproof wrapper that comes in contact with moisture becomes nonsterile
Chapter 11- Infection Control
Typeeofeinfections
An infection occurs when the presence of a pathogen leads to a chain of events. These pathogens
include viruses, bacteria, fungi, prions, and parasites
Prions- Protein particles
Parasites- Protozoa or helminths
Virulence-ethe ability of a pathogen to invade and injure its host
Herpesezoster-eis a common viral infection that erupts years after exposure to chicken pox and invades a
specific nerve tract
ImmuneeDefenses
Native immunity: restricts entry or immediately responds to a foreign organism through the activation of
phagocytic cells, complement, and inflammation. This occurs with all microorganisms, regardless of
previous exposure
Passive immunity: antibodies are produced by an external source
 Temporary immunity that does not have memory towards past exposures
Intact skin is the bodies first line of defense.
Mucous membranes, secretions, enzymes, phagocytic cells, and protective proteins are another line of
defense.
The inflammatory response driven by phagocytic cells, compliment system, and interferons localize the
invasion and prevents its spread.
Specificeadaptiveeimmunity
Allows the body to make antibodies in response to a foreign organism (antigen). This reaction directs
against identifiable microorganisms.
ActiveeImmunity
Antibodies are produced to a specific antigen
-requires time to react
-provides permanent immunity
-Involved B and T lymphocytes
-Produces specific antibodies against specific antigens
InfectioneProcess
1. Chain of infection
Causativeeagent-emicroorganism
Reservoir- human, animal, food, organic matter, water, soil, insects
Portaleofeexit-
-Respiratory tract, droplet transmission or airborne
-GI tract
-Gastrourinary tract
-Skin/mucous membranes
Blood/body fluids
-Transplacental
2. Mode of Transmission
Contact-edirect physical contact, indirect contact with an inanimate object, fecal-oral transmission
Droplet-esneezing, coughing, and talking
Airborne-eSneezing and coughing
VectoreBorn-eanimals or insects as intermediaries
Portaleofeentry-eto the host; may be the same as portal of exit
SusceptibleeHost-ecompromised defense mechanisms (immunocompromised, breaks in skin) leave the
host more susceptible to infections
3. Stages of infection
Incubation-einterval between the pathogen entering the body and the presentation of the first symptom
ProdromaleStage-einterval from onset of general symptoms to more distinct symptoms. During this time,
the pathogen is multiplying,
Illnessestage-einterval when symptoms specific to the infection occur
Convalescence-einterval when acute symptoms disappear. Total recovery could take days to months.

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Foundations Of Nsg Practice (NUR 3829C) ATI Study Guide

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