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Foundations Of Professional Nursing (NUR 3130) Chapter 39- Oxygenation And Perfusion

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Nova Southeastern University

Foundations of Professional Nursing (NUR 3130)

Foundations- Chapter 39- Oxygenation and Perfusion

Foundations- Chapter 39- Oxygenation and Perfusion
 The demand for oxygen is met by the function of the respiratory and
cardiovascular systems, also known as the cardiopulmonary system
 Oxygenation  the process of providing life-sustaining oxygen to the body’s cells
Anatomy and Physiology of Oxygen
 Oxygenation of body tissues depends on several factors
o Integrity of the airway system to transport air to and from the lungs
o Properly functioning alveolar system in the lungs to oxygenate venous blood
and to remove carbon dioxide from the blood
o Properly functioning cardiovascular system and blood supply to carry
nutrients and wastes to and from body cells
Respiratory System
 Oxygen and carbon dioxide must move through the alveoli as part of the
oxygenation process
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
 The airway, which begins at the nose and ends at the terminal bronchioles, is a
pathway for the transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
o Upper Airway  warm, filter, and humidify inspired air
 Nose
 Pharynx
 Larynx
 Epiglottis
o Lower Airway  conduction of air, mucociliary clearance, and production of
pulmonary surfactant
 Trachea
 Right and left main stem bronchi
 Segmental bronchi
 Terminal bronchioles
 Cilia  microscopic hair-like projections
 Alveoli  small air sacs
o Site of gas exchange
 Surfactant  detergent like phospholipid, reduces the surface tension between the
moist membranes of the alveoli, preventing their collapse
Physiology of the Respiratory System
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 Gas exchange, the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide, is made
possible by pulmonary ventilation, respiration, and perfusion
o Pulmonary Ventilation  movement of air into and out of the lungs
o Respiration  gas exchange between the atmospheric air in the alveoli and
blood in the capillaries
o Perfusion  process by which oxygenated capillary blood passes through
body tissue
 Pulmonary Ventilation
o Movement of air into and out of the lungs
o Two phases
 Inspiration (inhalation)
 Active phase
 Involves movement of muscles and the thorax to bring air into
the lungs
 Increased lung volume and decreased intrapulmonic pressure
allows atmospheric air to move from an area of greater pressure
(outside air) into an area of lesser pressure (within the lungs)
 Expiration (exhalation)
 Passive phase
 Movement of air out of the lungs
 Decreased volume in the lungs and an increase in intrapulmonic
pressure
o Air in the lungs moves from an area of greater pressure to
one of lesser pressure and is expired
 Respiration
o Occurs at the terminal alveolar capillary system
o Diffusion  movement of gas or particles from areas of higher pressure or
concentration to areas of lower pressure or concentration
 In respiration, it is the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between the air and the blood
o Incomplete lung expansion or the collapse of alveoli, known as atelectasis,
prevents pressure changes and the exchange of gas by diffusion in lungs
 Perfusion
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o Oxygenated capillary blood passes through the tissues of the body in the
process called profusion
Alterations in Respiratory Function
 Hypoxia  a condition in which an inadequate amount of oxygen is available to
cells
o Most common symptom of hypoxia is dyspnea
 Dyspnea  difficulty breathing; elevated blood pressure with a small
pulse pressure, increased respiratory and pulse rates, pallor, and
cyanosis
 Anxiety, restlessness, confusion, and drowsiness are also common
signs
o Hypoxia is often caused by hypoventilation (decreased rate or depth of air
movement into the lungs)
 Chronic Hypoxia
o Affects all body systems
 Altered thought process
 Headaches
 Chest pain
 Enlarged heart
 Clubbing of the digits
 Anorexia
 Constipation
 Decreased urinary output
 Decreased libido
 Muscle pain and weakness
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System
 The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the blood vessels
 The heart is the main organ of circulation
o The continuous one-way circuit of blood through the blood vessels, with the
heart as the pump
 Atria  upper chambers; receive blood from the veins
 Ventricles  lower chambers; force blood out of the heart through the arteries
Physiology of the Cardiovascular System

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Foundations Of Professional Nursing (NUR 3130) Chapter 39- Oxygenation And Perfusion

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