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Human Anatomy And Physiology (Biol 235) Assigment 2 Completes

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Athabasca University

Human Anatomy and Physiology (Biol 235)

Bio 235 Assigment 2 completes – Human Anatomy and Physiology

Assignment 2
Weight: 5%
Minimum Pass Grade: 50%
Each question is worth 10 marks.
1. Name the type of joint, and list the movements permitted at the shoulder joint. Under each movement’s
name, list the names of the muscles responsible for each of these movements along with descriptions of their
bone insertion.
 A joint, also called an articulation, or arthrosis, is a point of contact between two bones, between
bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth (Tortora & Derrickson page 258). Joints are classified
structurally, based on their anatomical characteristics, and functionally, based on the type of
movement they permit. The structural classification of joints is based on two criteria: (1) the
presence or absence of a space between the articulating bones, called a synovial cavity, and (2) the
type of connective tissue that binds the bones together. Structurally, joints are classified as one of the
following types:
o Fibrous joints, there is no synovial cavity and the bones are held together by dense irregular
connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers. Examples include suture, syndesmosis and
interosseous membrane.
o Cartilaginous joints, there is no synovial cavity and the bones are held together by cartilage.
Example includes synchondrosis and symphysis.
o Synovial joints, the bones forming the joint have a synovial cavity and are united by the
dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule and often by accessory ligaments.
Examples plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints.
 The functional classification of joints relates to the degree of movement they permit. Functionally,
joints are classified as one of the following types:
o Synarthrosis, an immovable joint.
o Amphiarthrosis, a slightly movable joint.
o Diarthrosis, a freely movable joint. All diarthroses are synovial joints. They have a variety of
shapes and permit several different types of movements

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Human Anatomy And Physiology (Biol 235) Assigment 2 Completes

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