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Introduction To Psychology (PSYC 100) The Chapters 1-5.5. For Exam 1 Lecture Notes

Sandra Watson
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California State University San Bernardino

Introduction to Psychology (PSYC 100)

Chapter 1
1) Be able to define Psychology and explain its primary purposes:
psychology is the systematic, objective study of our mental activity and our behavior.
❖ Mental activity lets us
➢ use sense to take in info from outside ourselves
➢ recieving and interpret that informations is responsible for our mental thoughts
and feelings
❖ Behavior
➢ our actions that result result from sensing and interpreting information.
❖ Brain process
➢ information to let us think about and respond to info in the world around us.
2) What is critical thinking? Who are the naïve/awestruck, the cynics, and the critics?
critical thinking , we systematically evaluate information to reach reasonable conclusions based on the
evidence. Steps would be
❖ 1. Open mind, but be cautious
❖ 2. Logic and reasoning to determine the holes in the evidence might be bias.
❖ 3.Alternations explanations before our final decision
Naive/awestruck are the people who deny anything, the cynics are believe is it for self interest, the
critics want evidence
3) Know the main focus and founder(s) of the psychological schools of thought:
a) Structuralism
❖ Founders: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener
❖ Goal: Identify the basic parts, or structures, of the conscious mind
➢ Broken down into underlying parts. Ex: Introspection on object: “I see
red. It’s bright” (An apple)
b) Functionalism
❖ F: William James, Charles Darwin
❖ Goal: Describe how the conscious mind aids adaptation to an environment
➢ Help humans adapt to environment demand to survive
➢ Survival of the fittest and evolution
c) Psychoanalysis
❖ Sigmund Freud
❖ Goal: Describe how the conscious mind aids adaptation to an environment.
➢ Blockages that produced disorders
d) Gestalt
❖ Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler
❖ Goals: Study subjective perceptions as a unified whole
➢ People experiences is different from all of the constituent elements of an
e) Behaviorism
❖ John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner
❖ Goals: Describe behavior in response to environment stimuli
➢ All behaviors through environment factors. “How does the environment
affect behavior?”
f) Humanistic
❖ F: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
❖ Investigate how people become happier and more fulfilled: basic goodness of
➢ Positive psychology. Ex.”How do people change in positive ways?”
g) Cognitive psychology
❖ George Miller, Ulric Neisser
❖ Explore internal mental processes that influence behavior
➢ Methods to investigate how people think, remember, pay attention, make
decision and solve problems



Introduction To Psychology (PSYC 100) The Chapters 1-5.5. For Exam 1  Lecture Notes

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