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Introductory Pharmacology (HUBS2203) Complete

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University of Newcastle (Australia)

Introductory Pharmacology (HUBS2203)

Complete- Pharmacology

HUBS2203: Introduction to
Pharmacology
Complete Notes
Semester 1, 2018
University of
Newcastle
Contents
Week 1: Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Week 2 Pharmacokinetics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Week 3: Drugs Acting on the ANS……………………………………………………………………………………………21
Week 4: Cardiovascular Drugs Part 1……………………………………………………………………………………….30
Week 5: Cardiovascular Drugs Part 2……………………………………………………………………………………….46
Week 6: Endocrine System Drugs……………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
Week 7 Drugs on Inflammation and Pain………………………………………………………………………………….70
Week 8: Respiratory Drugs…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
Week 9: Gut and Metabolism………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
Week 10: Chemotherapy…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
Week 11: Drugs for Affective Disorders…………………………………………………………………………………..129
Week 12: Drugs for other CNS Disorders…………………………………………………………………………………139
2
Week 1: Introduction
Learning Objectives
What is Pharmacology?
 The study of drugs
 Drug = anything that is administered to a person in order to bring about a therapeutic or diagnostic
effect or control of symptoms (very broad)
Define the term pharmacodynamics and identify which drug characteristics are pharmacodynamic
characteristics.
Pharmacodynamics = what the drug is doing to the body
(what the drug does)
Where is it acting & what are the effects
 Selectivity
 Efficacy
 Potency
Pharmacokinetics = what happens to the drug when its on its way to its site of action
 Processes after administration within the body
 The way the drug is acted on by our own physiological symptoms
 Where it breaks down and how quickly, how quickly it gets absorbed and what state its in once it arrives
at its site of action
 The drug needs to be able to get to its site of action in a sufficiently high concentration to have a
measurable therapeutic effect. If it can’t, it’s essentially useless no matter how good the
pharmacodynamics are
Where drugs act to produce their effects
 Dependent on chemical structure and various reactive groups that the molecule has on it
 Has it’s action by interaction with our own chemical structure
 Lock and key theory: explain the action of drugs at specific receptors
o Explains how certain classes of chemicals tend to bind to similar receptors and have similar
actions once they are bound
To what kind of molecular sites do drugs usually bind in order to have their effects?
Chemical “targets” drugs bind to in order to have their effect
1. Receptors
o These already exist to accommodate for endogenous signalling substances (neurotransmitters
and hormones)
2. Transport molecules
o = large proteins used as pumps to move substances from one body compartment to the other
(cell membrane pumps that move substances across their concentration gradient – active
transport molecules that require energy)
o Eg 1. Monoamine transporter found on neurones that contain and release the monoamine
neurotransmitters (serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine). Once they have been released and have
had their effect, the neurotransmitters that remain are then actively transported back into the
neurone
o Eg 2. Parietal cells lining the gastric pits – proton pump that actively transports the hydrogen ions
into the stomach (acidity)
3. Ion Channels
o Eg 1. Na and K channels have binding sites for ligands to gate those channels as well as drugs

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Introductory Pharmacology (HUBS2203) Complete

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