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LFS122 Human Anatomy Increase The University of the Sunshine Coast

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University of the Sunshine Coast

LFS122 Human Anatomy Increase The University of the Sunshine Coast

 Nasal Cavity
o External nares – Nostrils; air goes in
o Vestibule of the nose – small rounded section of the nose.
o The nasal cavity is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of
the face. The term “nasal cavity” can refer to each of the two sides of the nose or to
the two sides combined.
o The two nasal cavities condition the air to be received by the other areas of the
respiratory tract.
o The anterior aspect of the nasal cavity includes the nasal vestibule and external
nares, whilst the back aspect of the nasal cavity blends into the nasopharynx.
o Turbanates – Project from the lateral side of the nasal cavity to medially and
increase the SA of the nasal cavity – Conchae.
o Underneath the arching space, there is 1,3,5 nasal meatuses, these meatuses are
the trench or the space just underneath their respective conchae.
o Increasing the SA of the nasal cavity increases the air temperature so that we are
not breathing cold air and the air that the lungs is of a similar temperature as of the
o Internal Nares – point where the nasal cavity transitions into pharynx.
 Nasal Septum
o The nasal cavity is divided in two by a vertical nasal septum.
o The nasal septum contains two bones and hyaline cartilage.
 Superior bone is the perpendicular plate that projects inferiorly which is met
by the bottom from vomer of the ethmoid bone.
 In the space between the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and
vomer is the septal cartilage – projects past the bones and projects out into
the nose. It protects form damaging the nose or breaking nasal septum if its
o It is normally about 2mm thick.
 Pharynx
o The pharynx is the part of the throat located posteriorly behind the oral cavity and
nasal cavity and superior to the oesophagus and the larynx.
o Superior and Inferior Anatomical Limits of the Pharyngeal Regions
 Nasopharynx: It comprises the space between the posterior nasal aperture
(internal nares) and the soft palate and it lies above the oral cavity. Its
superior margin will be the posterior nasal aperture and till the tip of the
soft palate.
 Oropharynx: The oropharynx lies posteriorly to the oral cavity between the
soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis.
 Laryngopharynx: The laryngopharynx lies posteriorly to the larynx between
the tip of the epiglottis and the inferior margin of the cricoid cartilage.
 Structures within the Pharyngeal Regions
o Pharyngeal tonsils (single) – found on the posterior wall of the pharynx right up in
the arch.
o On the lateral wall of the nasopharynx, there will two of them bilaterally and will be
going up into the ear and will be openings to the Auditory Tube.
o Uvula – small little projection that hangs down of the soft palate. It is responsible for
various reflexes and prevents food and liquid from going up into nasopharynx.
o Palatine Tonsils (paired) – on each side of oropharynx
o Lingual Tonsils (single) – Posterior part of the tongue.
 Larynx
o The larynx commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck involved in
breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
o The larynx houses the vocal cords, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is
essential for phonation (talking).
o It is situated anteriorly to the pharynx and superiorly to the trachea and the
oesophagus, which is the continuation of the distal pharynx.
o Epiglottis – little flap that stops liquid and food from going down into trachea.
o Between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage there will be a thyrohyoid
ligament/membrane – membrane that will join the hyoid bone to the thyroid
o Thyroid cartilage is a structure that has a horseshoe shape.
o There’s a small V at the top in the midline, just under the V there will be laryngeal
prominence (Adam’s Apple).
o Underneath the thyroid cartilage there is cricoid cartilage – only fully complete
circular piece of cartilage within the respiratory system. Thyroid cartilage uses this to
anchor and some of the cartilages that control the vocal cords will be positioned on
the back of the cricoid cartilage.
o Vocal folds (vocal cords)
o Vestibular folds – when they shut that will stop any fluid from going down into


LFS122 Human Anatomy Increase The University of the Sunshine Coast


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