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Life-span Developmental Psychology

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Life-Span Developmental Psychology (PSYCH 217)

Exam Autumn 2016, questions and answers-for a person to remember a piece of information, _____ processes must function properly.

Chapter 6
Cognitive Growth: Information Processing Approaches
6-1. What is the term for the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in,
use, and store information?

6-2. Questions such as, “Will an infant recall his/her past?” go to the heart of the nature
of

6-3. According to the ___________, quantitative changes in an infant’s abilities to
organize and manipulate information represent the hallmarks of cognitive development.

6-4. The information processing approach emphasizes the types of ___________ that
people use when they problem solve.

6-5. Information processing focuses on _________ changes in infants.

6-6. All of the following are considered basic aspects of information processing EXCEPT

6-7. When a person initially records information in a form usable to memory, this is
called

6-8. What term refers to the placement of material into memory?

6-9. What term refers to the process by which material in memory is located and brought
to awareness and used?

6-10. Larry was daydreaming the day that his first grade teacher reviewed the math
lesson that 5 + 5 = 10. Later, Larry was not able to recall this information, probably
because

6-11. What term refers to the degree to which an activity requires attention?
a) automatization
b) encoding
c) information processing
d) retrieval

6-12. Processes that require relatively little attention are ___________; however,
processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are
a) controlled; automatic.
b) encoded; stored.
c) stored; encoded.
d) automatic; controlled

6-13. The author describes the categorization of objects, events, or people that share
common properties as
a) groups.
b) cohorts.
c) concepts.
d) associations.

6-14. Memory is traditionally viewed in terms of three sequential components including
all of the following EXCEPT
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) long-term memory.

6-15. For a person to remember a piece of information, _____ processes must function
properly.
a) 6
b) 3
c) 5
d) 4

6-16. The initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant, and is raw
and meaningless, is called
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory store.
d) long-term memory.

6-17. When information in memory is held for 15 to 25 seconds, it is called
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) long-term memory.

6-18. Mary looks at the phone number of her favorite pizza restaurant for a few seconds,
and then walks into the other room to call to order. Mary remembers the phone number
in its correct sequence. Mary is taking advantage of
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) long-term memory.

6-19. When a middle school student is able to demonstrate the he/she is able to hear a
string of digits (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) and then repeat the string in reverse order, the child is
indicating that he/she is developing
a) long-term memory skills.
b) short-term memory.
c) rehearsal strategies.
d) recall.

6-20. When information in memory is rehearsed and stored on a relatively permanent
basis, it is called
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) long-term memory.

6-21. Rasheed is memorizing his math times tables by using flash cards. He does this
frequently enough that eventually he does not need the visual stimulation of the cards to
remember his times tables for a test. Rasheed is then taking advantage of
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) long-term memory.

6-22. The choices people make are determined by ______________, information
processing involving the ability to strategically choose among and sort out different
stimuli in the environment.
a) attention
b) automatization
c) storage
d) retrieval

6-23. Some stimuli act as _______________ stimuli due to their physical characteristics;
others, due to their meaningfulness, act as _________________ stimuli.
a) attention-holding; sensory
b) attention-holding; attention-getting
c) attention-getting; attention-holding
d) attention-getting; sensory

6-24. With age, children become better at ignoring ________________ stimuli.
a) sensory
b) relative
c) interesting
d) irrelevant

6-25. What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a
low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?
a) Bipolar Disorder
b) childhood Schizophrenia
c) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
d) Generalized Anxiety Disorder

6-26. The behavior of children with ADHD
a) improves classroom environments.
b) is completely uncontrollable.
c) does not disrupt their lives.
d) interferes with their home and school functioning.

6-27. All of the following include factors that help differentiate normal active behavior in
children from those children with ADHD EXCEPT
a) persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, and organizing
work.

b) frequent interruptions of others or excessive talking.
c) difficulty waiting or remaining seated; fidgeting and squirming.
d) interest in very active, fast-paced games.

6-28. Most estimates put the number of children that have ADHD at ________ percent of
children under 18 years of age.
a) 3 to 7
b) 5 to 10
c) 1 to 4
d) 10 to 15

6-29. All of the following are side effects of medication treatment for ADHD EXCEPT
a) irritability.
b) loss of appetite and weight.
c) depression.
d) dependency.

6-30. Which of the following is NOT considered a method of ADHD treatment?
a) hormonal replacement therapy
b) behavior therapy
c) Ritalin
d) Dexadrine

6-31. Infantile amnesia is defined as the lack of memory for experience that occurred
prior to
a) six months of age.
b) 12 months of age.
c) 3 years of age.
d) 2 years of age.
Answer: c Page: 184 Level: Difficult Type: Factual

6-32. What is term for the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years
of age?
a) memory loss
b) infantile amnesia
c) storage
d) retrieval

6-33. While evidence suggests that the physical trace of memory in the brain is relatively
permanent, sometimes it seems that early childhood memories do not exist. Which of the
following may NOT be a reason for this?
a) memories can be susceptible to interference from newer information, which
may displace or block out old information preventing its recall
b) the memory/memories have not been retrieved often enough to become
enduring
c) the appropriate or necessary prompt for the memory is not available
d) neuronal-synaptic pruning erases early childhood memories

6-34. The physical trace of a memory in the brain
a) appears to be relatively permanent.
b) disappears due to synaptic pruning.
c) erases itself if unused.
d) is susceptible to interference.

6-35. Most people have unambiguous and seemingly accurate memories dating as far
back as age
a) five.
b) four.
c) three.
d) two.

6-36. What is the term for a memory of particular events from one’s own life?
a) picture memory
b) visual memory

c) autobiographical memory
d) biographical memory

6-37. Memories of personal experience do not seem to become accurate before age
a) 24 months.
b) 18 – 24 months.
c) 24 – 36 months.
d) 36 months.

6-38. Considering the following options, which is the most likely reason why preschoolage children may not have entirely accurate autobiographical memories?
a) preschool-age children have difficulty remembering events unless they are
particularly vivid or meaningful
b) preschool-age children are so active that they miss out on too many
aspects of an event to memorize the event accurately
c) preschool-age children are dependent upon their parents for their
interpretation of an event; therefore, the child does not make accurate
memories
d) preschool-age children’s brain structure is not fully developed enough to
store early memories accurately

6-39. If a middle-school age child employs conscious, intentionally used tactics to
improve cognitive processing, this is called
a) reasoning.
b) control strategies.
c) rehearsal.
d) working memory.

6-40. When faced with the task of remembering a list of cups, knives, forks, and plates,
10-year-old Kevin groups the items into a coherent pattern – cups and plates, forks and
knives. Kevin is using a(n)
a) developmental change.
b) metamemory.
c) operating efficiency hypothesis.
d) control strategy.

6-41. Preschoolers’ memories are often organized in a broad representation of events in
the order in which they occur called
a) autobiographical memory.
b) biographical memory.
c) scripts.
d) schema.

6-42. What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory,
which emerges and improves during middle childhood?
a) recall
b) rehearsal
c) metamemory
d) working memory

6-43. What primary thing can middle age people do to improve their memory that takes
relatively little effort?
a) use rehearsal and repetition
b) create elaborate rituals and routines
c) pay greater attention to particular things in order to remember them
later
d) write everything down

6-44. Which of the following memory skills show decline in middle age?
a) long-term memory and sensory memory
b) sensory memory and short-term memory
c) short term memory only
d) long term memory only

6-45. What is the term for formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it
more likely to be remembered?
a) long-term memory
b) schemas
c) mnemonics
d) short-term memory

6-46. Using memory skill such as getting better organized, paying attention, using
visualization strategies, and rehearsing information for later retrieval are all considered
a) long term memory strategies.
b) short term memory strategies.
c) schema strategies.
d) mnemonic strategies.

6-47. According to encoding specificity phenomenon, people are most likely to recall
information
a) when using mnemonic devices frequently.
b) after getting a full night of sleep.
c) in environments similar to where they learned it.
d) by making mental images of ideas that they want to remember later.

6-48. When discussing the reliability of memories, which of the following is considered
to be the most vulnerable to suggestion, and therefore, perhaps the least reliable?
a) the memory of a senior citizen
b) the memory of an adult
c) the memory of a school-age child
d) the memory of a preschool-age child

6-49. One way to question children to produce the most accurate recollections is to
a) ask vague questions.
b) question them as soon as possible after an incident.
c) ask questions inside of a courtroom in front of a judge.
d) use anatomically correct dolls to aid in questioning.

6-50. Proponents of _______________ believe that reading should be taught by
presenting the basic skills that underlie reading.
a) Metamemory
b) Transference
c) code-based approaches to reading
d) whole -anguage approaches to reading

6-51. Students who were tutored in _______ showed improved reading proficiency and
increased activity in brain areas related to skilled reading.
a) mnemonic devices
b) world cultures
c) phonics
d) memory

6-52. ______________ is thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies to
increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions
appropriately and successfully.
a) Encoding
b) Metamemory
c) Critical thinking
d) Information processing

ESSAY QUESTIONS
6-53. Briefly describe how information processing approach is analogous to a computer.
Answer: Information processing approaches suggest that the process of encoding,
storage, and retrieval are analogous to different parts of a computer. Encoding can be
thought of as a computer’s keyboard, where you would input the information. Storage is

the computer’s hard drive, where knowledge is stored. Retrieval is analogous to software
that accesses the information for display on the computer screen. Only when all three
processes are operating can information be processed.

6-54. Briefly explain the memory strategy called “keyword strategy”.
Answer: Keyword strategy involves information in which two sets of words or labels are
paired. For instance, in learning a foreign language, a foreign word is paired with a
common English word that has a similar sound. The English word is the keyword. An
example may be the Spanish word for duck is “pato”, and the keyword (English word)
may be “pot”. The learner trying to recall the Spanish word can key on the familiar word
“pot” which will bring about a mental image of the two words interacting with one
another. So the learner may imagine a duck in a pot and remember that the Spanish word
for duck is “pato”.

6-55. Briefly describe how the information processing approach is at odds with the
Piagetian approach with regard to children and learning.
Answer: Supporters of the information processing approach believe that one of its most
important features is the reliance on well-defined processes that can be tested with
relative precision in research is one of the perspective’s most important features. Unlike
Piagetian approach, which relies on somewhat vague concepts and notions such as
assimilation and accommodation, the information processing approach provides a
comprehensive and logical set of concepts.

 

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Life-span Developmental Psychology (Psych 217) Exam Autumn 2016

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