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(LUSL 1004) Nursing Praxis Liver, Pancreas, AND Biliary Tract

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John Marsh
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Liver, Pancreas, AND Biliary Tract

  • UniversityLaurentian University
  • CourseNursing Praxis and Professional Caring (LUSL 1004)

LIVER, PANCREAS, AND BILIARY TRACT PROBLEMS – CHAPTER 46 IN MED SURG
JAUNDICE:
 ↑ bilirubin concentration in blood
 Symptom
 Also called hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level must be higher than 34)
 Classified in three varieties
 Prehepatic jaundice
o ↑ of bilirubin before bile arrives at liver
o Overproduction of unconjugated bilirubin
 Hemolysis which is excessive breakdown of RBC’s (blood transfusion
reactions, sickle cell crisis, hemolytic anemia)
 Hepatic jaundice
o Alteration of liver’s ability to take up bilirubin from blood or conjugate or excrete
into bile
o Most common causes: hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellularcarcinoma
 Posthepatic (cholestatic) jaundice
o Failure of bile to reach duodenum
o Obstruction of bile flow through liver or biliary duct system
o Intrahepatic: (caused by swelling) Liver tumours, hepatitis, cirrhosis
o Extrahepatic: (caused by obstruction of the common duct by a stone)
cholelithiasis, sclerosing cholangitis, pancreatic cancer
 When obstruction is complete, stools are clay coloured (grey ish)
DISORDERS OF THE LIVER:
 Viral hepatitis
 Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
 Toxic and drug-induced hepatitis
HEPATITIS:
 An inflammation of the liver
 Acute viral hepatitis most common
 Types: A, B, C, D, E, and G
 Caused also by drugs, chemicals, autoimmune liver disease
 Rarely caused by bacteria
STATS:
 Hepatitis B
o 80,000 new cases of Hep B annually in US
o 300 million people infected with Hep B worldwide
o Highest rate occurs in those 20-49 yrs of age
o 1990s Hep B decreased r/t to HBV vaccine

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 (LUSL 1004) Nursing Praxis Liver, Pancreas, AND Biliary Tract

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