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MBA Leadership (MBA5002) 4Psychosocial Integrity

John Marsh
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4Psychosocial Integrity

Capella University

MBA Leadership (MBA5002)

I. Coping and ego-defense mechanisms
A. Coping mechanisms
1. Conscious or unconscious behaviors used to decrease anxiety; may be healthy or
2. Individualized
3. Can be learned and are culturally dependent
4. Examples
a. crying, laughing, sleeping
b. physical activity
c. smoking, drinking
d. social withdrawal
e. use of relaxation techniques
B. Ego-defense mechanisms
1. Unconscious reactions that protect the self (ego) from overwhelming anxiety
2. All include a distortion of reality
3. Types of defense mechanisms
Therapeutic nurse-client relationship
A. Definition: a therapeutic, helping, and professional relationship based on trust that allows the
nurse and client to collaboratively solve the client’s problems
1. The nurse possesses the skills, knowledge and ability to intervene
2. The client needs and/or seeks help for some problem
B. Phases of the nurse-client relationship
C. (Five) characteristics of nurse-client relationship
1. Mutual definition – together, nurse and client define relationship
2. Goal direction – purpose, time, and place are specific
3. Specified boundaries – in time, space, content, and confidentiality
4. Therapeutic communication – nurse eases trust and open communication by these
interpersonal techniques
5. Nurse helps client toward resolution
D. Therapeutic communication
1. Determined by cultural norms and values
2. Factors to consider
A. impairments
B. age and developmental stage
C. gender
D. role
E. physical and personal space
F. physical state, i.e., pain, hunger, sensory impairments
G. emotional state, i.e., anxiety, fear
3. Focus on actual objective behaviors, not on subjective inferences
4. Focus on description, not on judgment
5. Share information and explore alternatives instead of offering advice and solutions
6. Focus on how and what, not on “why”
7. Focus on reality orientation for cognitively impaired, confused, or disoriented clients
8. Ask open-ended questions and seek information
9. Focus on nursing interventions



MBA Leadership (MBA5002) 4Psychosocial Integrity

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