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MGMT 301-Chapter Two – Management Theory

Sandra Watson
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Mgmt & Org Behavior (MGMT 301)

University of Louisville

the classical management viewpoint emphasized

Chapter Two – Management Theory
Major Questions You Should Be able to Answer
1. What’s the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday’s and
2. If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical
viewpoint teach me?
3. To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral
4. If the manager’s job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches
5. How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint?
6. In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations?
7. Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success?
8. How do I build a learning organization?
Six Practical Reasons for Studying This Chapter
1. Understanding of the present
2. Guide to action
3. Source of new ideas
4. Clues to the meaning of your managers’ decisions
5. Clues to the meaning of outside events
6. Producing positive results
The Two Overarching Perspectives: Historical and Contemporary
• The historical perspective (1911-1950s)
o Classical viewpoint (1911-1947)
§ Emphasis on ways to manage work more efficiently
o Behavioral viewpoint (1913-1950s)
§ Emphasis on importance of understanding human behavior and motivating
and encouraging employees toward achievement
o Quantitative viewpoint (1940s-1950s)
§ Applies quantitative techniques to management
• The contemporary perspective (1960s-present)
o The systems viewpoint
§ Regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate
together to achieve a common purpose
o The contingency viewpoint
§ Emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to – i.e., be
contingent on – the individual and environmental situation



MGMT 301-Chapter Two – Management Theory

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