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NR-283 Pathophysiology Chamberlain University

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Chamberlain University

NR-283 Pathophysiology Chamberlain University

 “Patho” means the disease process  Pathophysiology; involves the study of functional or structural changes resulting from disease processes.  Disease; is a deviation from the normal state of health and function.  Signs and symptoms-how you know patient has a problem, looking at the past and the present  Syndrome; A collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ or system, that usually occur together in response to a certain condition.  Pathogenesis; the development of a disease or sequence of events related to tissue changes involved in the disease process.  Path-chronic diseases-diabetes in the past can cause different issues in the present and future, have to know the past.  Present illness, medication, herbal medications, over the counter  Allergies, previous hospitalizations, therapies, surgeries, genetic predisposition, family history  Predisposing factor if the patient has a genetic history, healthy lifestyle and what they are doing, something we identify; the patient does not have a disease yet. *Usually used to develop preventive measures.  Nutrition, exercise, mental health, occupational, environment, heredity, socioeconomic status, age, gender
*Double blind studies used in health research: neither the members of the control group or the experimental group nor the person administering the treatment knows who is receiving the experimental therapy. The 3 rd stage of evaluation process for a new therapy’s effectiveness and safety.
* Evidence-based research: when the data collected from the research process confirm that the new treatment has increased effectiveness and is safe.
Primary Prevention- the goal is to protect healthy people from developing a disease or experiencing an injury in the first place. o Education about good nutrition, the importance of regular exercise, and the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. o Education on legislation about proper seatbelt and helmet use o Regular exams and screening test to monitor risk factors for illness o Immunization against infectious disease o Controlling potential hazards at home and in the workplace.
Secondary Prevention- the interventions happen after illness or serious risk factors have already been diagnosed. The goal is to halt or slow the progress of disease (if possible) in its earliest stages; in the case of injury, goals include limiting long-term disability and preventing re-injury. o Telling people to take daily, low-dose aspirin to prevent a 1st/2nd heart attack or stroke. o Recommending regular exams and screening test in people with known risk factors for illness. o Providing suitably modified work for injured workers.
Tertiary Prevention- focuses on helping people manage complicated, longterm health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and chronic musculoskeletal pain. The goals include preventing further physical deterioration and maximizing quality of life. o Cardiac or stroke rehabilitation programs o Chronic pain management programs o Patient support groups
Main goal is to educate the patient about what is going on with them.
 Etiology (causes of disease) – the factor that caused the patient to have the disease, bacteria or viruses (pathogens)  Idiopathic unknown reasons why a patient gets an illness or a disease. (Need this for RUA)  Iatrogenic an error in treatment or procedure that may cause a disease. Ex: an unwanted effect of a Rx drug.  Fever-  is considered a systemic sign of disease.  Epidemic- A situation when there is a higher than expected number of cases of an infectious disease within a given area.
When you talk about a disease, what are the causes?
What are the predisposing factors-The manifestations of a disease are best defined as the:
1.) Signs-what you can see (objective) of said disease 2.) Symptoms-what the patient tells you (subjective)of said disease
 Diagnosis head to toe assessment, lab tests, XRAYS etc., signs and symptoms, treatment, complications, 1. Adverse reaction to medication and complications are different. 2. How do we treat the patient? – (Not talked about in detail) …BUT
 Disease process …can be,
1. Acute- A short-term illness that develops very quickly with perhaps a high fever or severe pain (sudden/short term-less than 6 months) OR 2. Chronic- (EX: diabetes)
…Acute can become chronic-if illness is reoccurring*
 Subclinical state patient has a disease but there are no obvious signs or symptoms (HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer)  Incubation period communicable disease, such as chicken pox  Syndrome combination of signs and symptoms with multiple organs involved  Comorbidity one disease affects another one. (Patient has high blood pressure and diabetes- creates a cardiovascular problem) this is not past history these are current issues that are going on with the patient. (NO 100 percent treatment)  Prognosis Predicted outcome of likelihood of recovery from a specific disease or expected outcome of the disease.  Epidemiology the study of the disease processes ( The science of tracking the occurrence and distribution of diseases)  Morbidity disease rate within a group (incidence)  Mortality Death rate  Communicable disease… spread by, 1. Airborne (TB)-in a negative pressure room so it doesn’t spread through ducts, have to be isolated, 2. Skin to skin- (Chicken pox, CDIF, MERSA,), 3. Body fluid- (AIDS, hepititus, cytomegalovirus,) 4. Droplet- (flu, cold, meningococcal, rubella). (Shorter distance cannot be transmitted through ducts, so no isolation is needed when treating patients with these types of infections or diseases.
http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/ sa+health+internet/health+topics/health+conditions+prevention+and+treatment/ infectious+diseases/ways+infectious+diseases+spread (website for diseases)
 Cellular adaptations…
 Atrophy refers to a decrease in the size of cells , resulting in a reduced tissue mass. Common causes include…  Reduced use of the tissue,  Insufficient nutrition,  Decreased neurologic or hormonal stimulation,  And aging.
Example: The shrinkage of skeletal muscle that occurs when a limb is immobilized in a cast for several weeks.
 Hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells, resulting in an enlarged tissue mass. 1. This increase may be caused by additional work by the tissue, as demonstrated by an enlarged heart muscle resulting from increased demands. 2. A common example of hypertrophy is the effect of consistent exercise on skeletal muscle, leading to an enlarged muscle mass. 3. Excessive hormonal stimulation may also stimulate cell growth. (Steroids) *Ex: Rigorous weight lifting/body building regimens may result in the skeletal muscle cells undergoing: hypertrophy
 Hyperplasia is defined as an increased number of cells resulting in an enlarged tissue mass. 1. In some cases, hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur simultaneously, as in the uterine enlargement that occurs during pregnancy. 2. Hyperplasia may be a compensatory mechanism to meet increased demands, or it may be pathologic when there is a hormonal imbalance. 3. In certain instances there may be an increased risk of cancer when hyperplasia occurs.
 Metaplasia occurs when one mature cell type is replaced by a different Mature cell type. 1. This change may result from a deficit of vitamin A. 2. Sometimes, metaplasia may be an adaptive mechanism that provides a more resistant tissue; for instance, when stratified squamous epithelium replaces ciliated columnar epithelium in the respiratory tracts of cigarette smokers. 3. Although the new cells present a stronger barrier, they result in decreased defenses for the lungs because cilia are no longer present as a defense mechanism for the simpler squamous cells in the mucosa.
 Dysplasia is the term applied to tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape, large nuclei are frequently present, and the rate of mitosis is increased. A change in a tissue marked by cells that vary in size and shape and show increased mitotic figures…
1. This situation may result from chronic irritation infection, or it may be a precancerous change. 2. Detection of dysplasia is the basis of routine screening tests for atypical cells such as the Pap smear (Papanicolaou test on cervical cells).
• Anaplasia- refers to cells that are undifferentiated with variable nuclear and cell structures and numerous mitotic figures. 1. Anaplasia is characteristic of cancer and is the basis for grading the aggressiveness of a tumor.
*Know diff between:
undifferentiated (Stem cells/ are not specialized for any particular function) & differentiated cells (cells are those that have been subject to specific epigenetic modifications to the cell)
• Neoplasia- means “new growth,” and a neoplasm is commonly called a tumor.
1.) Tumors are of two types, benign and malignant. 2.) Malignant neoplasms are referred to as cancer . Benign tumors do not necessarily become malignant. 3.) Benign tumors are usually considered less serious because they do not spread and are not life threatening unless they are found in certain locations, such as the brain, where they can cause pressure problems. 4.) The characteristics of each tumor depend on the specific type of cell from which the tumor arises, resulting in a unique appearance and growth pattern. (Biopsy confirmation of malignant tumor)

Apoptosis preprogrammed cell death/destruction-this is a normal occurrence in the body, (after 120 days RBC die) *Damaged cells may be able to repair themselves.

Ischemia deficit of oxygen in the cells usually due to respiratory or circulatory problems. EX: Stroke, MI: there is an issue with blood circulation and blood oxygenation, so the cells die, this results in ex. Above. Reasons of death would be cardiovascular and respiratory.  Hypoxia reduced oxygen in the cells-for a short period of time the cells did not receive enough oxygenation, (EX: frost bite.) reason of death would be respiratory issue. *Caseation necrosis refers to an area where: dead cells form a thick cheesy substance. *A circumstance that causes a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease to occur is termed: Precipitating factor.
*When prolonged ischemia occurs to an area of the heart, the resulting damage is referred to as: INFARCTION


NR-283 Pathophysiology Chamberlain University

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