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NUGT1514 LU 4.6 University of the Free State Nursing Theory (NVRT1516)

John Marsh
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Increase in body temperature because of increase body process actvites and individual wakes up◦
This increase in temperature varies among individuals leading to such classifcatons such as ◦
morning person or night person
Would you describe yourself as a “morning person or a night owl”? Do you understand why you ◦
have this specifc rhythm?
Metabolic rate connected to sleep-wake cycle.◦
Metabolism lowest during early morning hours◦
Working night duty – u will be most tred at 04:00am◦
Oxygen consumpton decrease during sleep, vital signs will be lower◦
During REM sleep – vital signs will increase◦
Peristaltc movements of GI tract lower◦
Defniton: Reversible state of inactvity –lack of interacton with external environment◦
Basic physiological need for the maintenance and restoraton of homeostasis◦
Functons in terms of homeostasis:
Body prepares itself for following day’s actvites through release of hormones, biochemical changes◦
and nutriton of cells
Occurrences of the day are relived and organized through dreams. NB for learning.◦
Temporary relief from anxiety and stress –which helps to restore energy, interest and motvaton for◦
the next day.
4 Sleep Stages◦
Within these stages, there are 2 types of sleep, which is:◦
Deep, restul sleep and◦
Paradoxical sleep or REM sleep◦
Rapid Eye Movement sleep◦
Occurs several tmes per night◦
Length linked to how tred some1 is◦
Lasts for 5-20 minute cycles◦
More tred = longer REM,◦
High stress – needs more REM◦
Afer 90 minutes of 4 sleep stages, the cycle is reversed, before waking up – REM sleep occurs◦
Rapid Eye movements◦
Very relaxed, especially lower jaw◦
Irregular pulse◦
Increased gastric secretons = ulcer – wakes up with indigeston◦
Stages of sleep
1. First
Floatng sensaton and feels drowsy
Mind remains actve and can be easily awakened – if
awakened, will feel as if you have not slept at all
Lasts for 30 minutes
2. Second
Light sleep, shorter than 1st stage
Can be easily awakened
Feels more relaxed
3. Third
Fairly deep asleep
Difficult to wake person up
Even more relaxed
4. Fourth
Paradoxical stage
Sleeping deeply, very relaxed and seldom moves
Difficult to wake the person up – if awakened: confused
Essental for physical rest, learning and memory


NUGT1514 LU 4.6 University of the Free State Nursing Theory (NVRT1516)

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