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NUR222Final Exam Prep - Exam Notes

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NUR222Final Exam Prep – Exam notes

Growth: Quantifiable change in structure
◦Childhood: Physical changes measured/charted regularly
◦Adulthood: Assess systems undergoing change, influences on growth
◦Gender
◦Age
◦Genetics
◦Environment (e.g., prenatal/postnatal exposures, nutrition, culture, parenting, infections, injuries)
The increase in size of an organism
Growth patterns: quantitative or precisely measurable change
◦Growth rate not steady (infancy vs. school-age)
◦Different body parts grow at different rates (head vs overall length)
Growth charts: most important indicators of overall health/wellbeing
◦Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – use the 2006 WHO growth charts for children from birth to 24
months and the revised 2000 CDC growth charts with BMI & 3rd and 97thpercentiles for children 2yrs -20yrs.
◦Chart linear, weight, and head circumference (infants); body mass index-for-age
◦Serial measurements best reflection of growth
Learning and maturation: Learning: Process of gaining knowledge/skills from exposure, education, experience
◦Maturation: Increased competence because of changes in structural complexity that make higher function possible (a
fixed developmental sequence)
◦Learning cannot occur unless individual is mature enough to understand/control behavior
Directional developmental human growth patterns
Celphalocaudal – head to toe (head grows first)
Proximodistal – midline to periphery (center of body, organs before legs and arms)
Differentiation- General to specific (coo or bubble before speaking infants)
Anticipatory guidance: A way to teach parents & caregivers ways to handle a situation before it becomes an issue or
problem.
◦Knowledge of normal growth and development provides a foundation for this teaching.
Theories of development
Propose ways to account for how and why people grow as they do.
Provide a framework for examining, describing, and appreciating human development.
Help nurses assess and treat a patient’s response to illness.
Biophysical Developmental Theories: Examine how bodies grow and change
Gesell’s theory of developments
Growth and dev is unique and is directed by gene activity
Human Growth: Maturation follows a fixed developmental sequence
Is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change.
In the early stages of life from babyhood to childhood, childhood to adolescence, and adolescence to adulthood—
enormous changes take place. ..
Psychoanalytical/Psychosocial Theory
Describe development from personality, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.
◦Explain development as primary; unconscious and influenced by emotion.
◦Psychoanalytical theorists maintain that these unconscious conflicts influence development through universal stages
experienced by all individuals.

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NUR222Final Exam Prep - Exam Notes

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