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Nursing Hampton & Newcomb Research Article Critique Part Two 2018

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John Marsh
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Nursing Research Article Critique, Part Two RAC 2

Self-efficacy and stress among informal caregivers of individuals at end of life (Hampton & Newcomb, 2018)

 Instructions: A major skill that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that is not learned overnight. To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.

Here’s how you should approach completing this week’s assignment to finish critiquing an article:

1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove and Gray ( 2019) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week. This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.
2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about. Lightly cross out the abstract for the article (you won’t be using it). Then, for this week, re-read carefully from the study’s methods section through the end of the article.
3. Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove and Gray {2019) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.
4. Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook. Some examples of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.
5. Once you have completed this assignment “on paper”, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that “this is a test” and carefully enter your answers from this document.
6. You will have two access attempts to record your answers. This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt. Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.

If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.

Questions 1 – 9: Sample. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters: 9 & 12)

1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Convenience sampling
d. Network sampling

2. According to Grove and Gray {2019), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?
a. This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.
b. This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.
c. This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
d. This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.
e. None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.

3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?
a) 78 participants
b) 115 participants annually
c) 82 participants per month
d) 28 participants

4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?
a. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha
value of 0.5, and a moderate effect size.
b. The authors mention that an power analysis was conducted, and 77 participants were
determined to be needed for the study.
c. The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.

5. Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?
a. The participants are able to understand English.
b. The participants are experiencing stress in their role as caregiver.
c. The participants are associated with community-based hospice agencies in North Central Texas.
d. No inclusion criteria were specifically reported by the authors.

6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?
a. The participants are not able to understand English.
b. The participants are not experiencing any stress in their role as caregiver.
c. The participants have been in the caregiver role for less than 3 months.
d. No exclusion criteria were specifically reported by the authors.

7. What is the acceptance rate for this study? (Hint: see page 232-234 in your text)
a. 100%
b. 77 /78 X 100% = 98%
c. 1/78 X 100% = 1%
d. unknown / cannot be calculated

8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?
a. 1 /78 X 100% = 1%
b. 0%
c. 77/78 x 100% = 98%
d. unknown / cannot be calculated

9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.
a. The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
b. The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
c. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
d. The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.

Question 10 – 14: Measurement Methods. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)

10.Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study? ( Select all that apply )
a. The Caregiver Inventory (CGI)
b. The Pearlin Stress Process Model
c. The Bandura Self-Efficacy Scale
d. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
e. Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Scale

11. How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)?
a. They allowed the participants to complete the scale in a location of their own choice.
b. They stated that the instrument has well-established evidence of reliability from previous studies involving informal caregivers.
c. They tested the current group of subjects using two different versions of the same scale (alternate forms reliability).
d. They computed a Cronbach’s alpha on the scale that was administered to this group of subjects.

12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) used in this study?
a. The scale was reviewed by six experts prior to being used in this study.
b. The
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was examined by face, construct, and discriminant validity methods.
c. The
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was described as having well-established evidence of validity from previous studies.
d. The readability levels were identified prior to being used in this study.

13. What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?
( Select all that apply )
a. The authors developed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).
b. The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
c. Interviews were reportedly used, but the author does not explain what was included in them.
d. The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to assess caregivers’ selfefficacy, perceived stress, and perceived physical health and mental health.
e. The authors developed their own questions to assess self-efficacy.
e. This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.

14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?
a. Yes
b. No

Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)
15. Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
( Select all that apply )
a. Participants were contacted by phone by nurse researcher.
b. Participants were given the questionnaires on enrollment in the study
c. Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.
d. Researchers consented participants after face to face discussion of study
e. Participants returned the questionnaires to agency staff and the investigator collected them.

16. Based on the study’s data collection methods, if there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?
a. Yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter- rater reliability.
b. Yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
c. No, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here

Question 17 – 19: Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
17. What descriptive statistics are used in this study? ( Select all that apply )
a. mean
b. median
c. frequencies
d. standard deviation
e. percentage distributions
f. range
g. Pearson correlations

18. Which one of these inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the participants? ( Select all that apply )
a. Pearson correlations
b. Factor Analysis
c. Multivariate regression analysis
d. Cox regression analysis
e. Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient
f. independent-samples
t test
g. Logistic regression analysis
h.
z score
i. None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.

19. What is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?
a. .01 or 1%
b. .05 or 5%
c. .10 or 10%
d. An alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article.

Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters
11 & 12)

20. There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which statement from the article would be considered a significant result?
a. Caregivers reported the lowest level of confidence in caring for themselves (x
2 = 5.46, SD = 1.83).
b. The average score on the PSS was 18.26 (SD = 7.17), but almost half (43%) of surveyed caregivers in this sample scored 20 or greater on the PSS.
c. Forty-three percent of surveyed caregivers reported high levels of perceived stress, and caregivers in this sample indicated the presence of more anxiety and depression than the general SF12V12 database population.
d. Caring for oneself correlated significantly with perceived stress (r = -0.63, p = < .01) and predicted 38% of the variance in PSS scores.

21. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?
a. Significant relationships between the additional CGI subscale scores and perceived stress (PSS) score were not detected.
b. Overall, caregivers reported a moderate level of confidence in their ability to manage caregiving demands, which was indicated by the CGI total score (x
2 = 26.81, SD = 5.10).
c. Despite reports of above average physical health (51
st percentile rank) in the current sample, 82% of the surveyed caregivers rated perceived mental health below the SF12v12 general population (43rd percentile rank).
d. Caregivers’ percentile rankings on individual attributes of the SF12v12 ranged from 43.45 to 48.68.

22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important? (Select all that apply)
a. Self-efficacy for self-care is a significant weakness for informal caregivers.
b. Overall, caregivers reported a moderate level of confidence in their ability to manage caregiving demands, which was indicated by the CGI total score (x
2 = 26.81, SD = 5.10).
c. An inconsistency with previous literature was the finding that participants generally reported higher than average scores on physical health.
d. A finding from this study are particularly important for nurses who interact with informal caregivers, is that a significant negative correlation exists between caregiver perceived stress and caregiver mental health ranking.

23. Which statements below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study? ( Select all that apply )
a. The study population included a convenience sample of informal caregivers who were receiving some level of caregiving support from an agency that provided end-of-life supportive services.
b. Health care providers must recognize the importance of caregiver self-efficacy.
c. Future studies of caregivers should compare caregivers who receive supportive services to those who do not.
d. The cross-sectional nature of the present study precludes learning about changes over time for any of the target variables.

24. Which of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?
a. The sample included adult informal caregivers recruited from community-based hospice agencies and therefore decreases the ability to generalize to all adult informal caregivers.
b. The results of this study can be generalized to ethnic adult informal caregivers.
c. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in this and previous studies; as such, the results of this study can be generalized to all adult informal caregivers.
d. The sample included adult informal caregivers recruited from community-based hospice agencies and therefore the results of this study can be generalized without caution to all adult informal caregivers receiving support from community-based hospice agencies.

25. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? ( Select all that apply )
a. Significant relationships between the additional CGI subscale scores and perceived stress (PSS) score were not detected.
b. Future studies of caregivers should compare caregivers who receive supportive services to those who do not.
c. Future research should include longitudinal studies in order to measure changes in stress and self-efficacy over time.
d. Because identification of factors that reduce negative outcomes is vital to the psychological and physical health of informal caregivers, researchers should study the influence of self efficacy on caregivers providing care to patients with diverse health conditions.

 

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