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PGY300LEC Human Physiology University at Buffalo

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University at Buffalo

PGY300LEC Human Physiology University at Buffalo

PGY300 Test 1 Review:
Lecture 1: CNS Intro
CNS: brain & spinal cord
Diff meninges: protect CNS; spinal cord and brain
-Pia Mater, Arachnoid Membrane, Dura Mater
Inside  Outside
-Meningitis: inflammation of meninges
-Spinal cord –
Gray Matter: Central Synaptic Region
-Afferent/ Sensory: cell bodies in dorsal root then dorsal horn where they may synapse with
motor neurons that r leaving thru dorsal horn back out into periphery
-Efferent/Motor: neurons that lave the spinal cord from the ventral horn
-White Matter: myelinated fibers going up to brain and down
-Ascending Tract: carry neurons to the brain
-Descending Tract: carry neurons from the brain
-CSF provides nutrients for brain and cushion
-Made in Choroid Plexus
-Blood Brain Barrier
-Prevents things from getting from blood to brain
-Formed by tight junctions and astrocytes (glial cell)
-Medulla: lowest part of brain, Cardiac & Respiratory function; Involuntary
-Cerebellum: Motor control; half of neurons in whole brain
-Pons- Relay area from cerebellum to cerebrum
-Cerebrum- Thinking
-Primary sensory and association areas
-Motor association and Motor cortex areas
-Sensory information: Thalamus (except in olfactory system) > Primary Somatic Area >
Association Sensory Area > Motor Association area > Motor primary area
-Cerebrum- body represented by Homunculus- shows diff parts of body represented to greater
or lesser extent along surface of cerebrum
-Association areas:
-Wernickes- Sensory
-Brocas- Motor
-Corpus Callosum- send information from hemisphere to other
-Info from left side of body goes to right hemisphere and vice versa
-Right Hemisphere : sense of self
-Basal Ganglia: Parkinson’s; involved in controlling motor activity by disinhibition until you
actually want to use a function
-Limbic System:
-Thalamus- relaying sensory info to the cerebral cortex
-Hippocampus- convert short to long term memory
-Amygdala-memories associated w strong emotional content
-Hypothalamus- homeostasis function
-MRI: imaging of brain; magnetic fields)
-advantage: skull doesn’t interfere with image
-good for anatomical imaging of brain
-FMRI: look at function of brain by looking at blood flow movement to evaluate which parts of
brain are active
-PET: positron- positive electron to produce signal; combines with electron and annihilate an
electron to produce signal
-EEG- electrode over skull measures electrical activity across skull
-small signals
-sleep behavior, localizing seizure site
LECTURE 2: The Neuron
-Neuron: input to dendrites, to soma, down axon
-A.P generated in axon (initial segment), goes down axon quickly because it’s myelinated
-when A.P reaches the terminal, large depolarization activates voltage sens Ca channels, Ca
flows in and stimulates N.T release
-G.P in dendrites that travel down and if they’re big enough to reach threshold, A.P produced
-Schwann cells (in periphery) and Oligodendrites (CNS) myelinate cells
-Schwann wraps around cell
-Multiple Sclerosis(M.S)- lose the myelin wrapping so A.P and signal slows down
-Variety of diff types of neurons
-Sensory and Motor neurons
-Astrocytes- BBB formation and N.T uptake (removing neurons from synapse)
-1 millimeter long glial cell wrapping
-1 micrometer – Node of Ranvier: A.P is reboosted as it travels down axon
-Charge: pos and neg ions
-Current: ions/sec, rate of flow of ions
-Voltage- driving force to move ions
-Conductance- how easy it is for ions to move through; dependent on size of channel or how
many channels are open
-Depolarization/Excitation/more positive or Hyperpolarization/Inhibited/more negative
-For a cell to become negative inside and positive outside, to develop a resting membrane
potential things that must occur:
1. must create imbalance of ions in and out of cell
2. for resting membrane potential, K+ is important so you create high K inside of cell compared
to outside; require energy from ATP
3. NAK pumps uses energy to depletes sodium from in cell and high potass in cell and low Na in
4. Once u have that concentration diff, the cell is negative bc once you create the imbalance of
ions, if you open channel that lets one type ion go through, potass will leave cell, depleting cell
of pos charge and that flux continues until cell becomes so negative that acts as another force
Equilibrium Potential:
-each ion has diff equilibrium; +60mV for N; -90mV for K; -63mV for Cl
-the more K+ channels opened, closer to -90mV cell will become
-more Na channels opened, closer to +60mV
-once equilibrium potential is met, that ion stops flowing
Lecture 3: Membrane Proteins
Cell Membranes: Lipid bilayer
-impermeable to ions
-need Carrier or Channel to get ions past membrane
-Carriers: slower because needs to change direction
-Advantage: can move against concentration gradient
Primary or Secondary Active Transport (using energy from high concentration of sodium
outside to move something in through a carrier, not directly using energy)
-Uniport(1 thing) vs Symport (2 things in same direction) vs Antiport (2 things in opposite
direction) (ex: NAK pump)


PGY300LEC Human Physiology University at Buffalo

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