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Praxis and Professional (NURS-2144EL) Hematological System

John Marsh
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hematological system- nurs praxis-hematological system

  • Laurentian University
  • Nursing Praxis and Professional Caring IV (NURS-2144EL)

Blood Components
 Plasma makes up approximately 55% of the blood
 Composed of mostly water but also contains things like
proteins, electrolytes, gases, nutrients, and waste
 Plasma proteins include albumin, globulin, and clotting
 The term serum refers to plasma without its clotting
factors. Approximately 45% of the blood is composed of 3
types of cells
 Erythrocytes (RBC)- transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
 Leukocytes (WBC)- protects from infection
 Thrombocytes (platelets)- promotes blood coagulation

Hematological Problems
The Anemias
 Anemia can happen whenever there is a pathological problem that
o Interferes with RBC production
o Causes premature destruction of mature RBCs
 Several types of anemia
 When trying to determine what type of anemia a person has, doctors will often look at
the patient’s reticulocyte count
 Iron deficiency anemia: the body does not have enough iron to manufacture RBCs.
Leads to a low reticulocyte count
 Pernicious anemia: the body does not have enough vitamin B12 to manufacture RBCs
also leading to low reticulocyte count
 Sickle cell anemia: RBCs are being rapidly destroyed before they would normally die.
The bone marrow must work overtime to preplace them, resulting in high reticulocyte
Iron Deficiency Anemia
 Caused by inadequate supplies of iron within the body, which is needed to synthesize
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 Most common in young children, those who are malnourished, and in women who are
in their reproductive years
 Inadequate supplies of iron can be caused by
o Inadequate dietary intake of iron
o Excessive blood loss
o Malabsorption of iron
 All of the iron that we have in our body comes from the food we eat. For most people a
normal regular diet is enough to maintain adequate iron levels
 When iron needs increase, it becomes more difficult to maintain adequate amounts of
iron intake (ex, menstruation)
 Enough iron may be consumed but malabsorption occurs
 Most of the iron ingested is absorbed in the duodenum, malabsorption can occur when
there is a disease in this area
 Chronic blood loss from the gastro-intestinal or genitourinary system is also very
commonly a cause



 Praxis and Professional (NURS-2144EL) Hematological System

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