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PSY1101 Introduction to Psychology: Foundations University of Ottawa

Sandra Watson
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University of Ottawa

PSY1101 Introduction to Psychology: Foundations UO

Chapter 1
1. The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
A. dismiss the value of replication. B. reject any ideas that can’t be scientifically tested. C. exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome. D. overestimate the extent to which others share their opinio
2. The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by
A. illusory correlations. B. hindsight bias. C. operational definitions. D. the placebo effect.
3. Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of
A. the placebo effect. B. illusory correlation. C. hindsight bias. D. the double-blind procedure.
4. Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of
A. replication. B. hindsight bias. C. the double-blind procedure. D. the placebo effect.
5. Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates
A. the placebo effect. B. random assignment. C. illusory correlation. D. hindsight bias.
136. In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex?
A. hospital X B. hospital Y C. hospital Z D. The probability is the same at all three hospitals.
137. As the size of a representative sample increases, the ________ of that sample is most likely to decrease.
A. range B. mean C. standard deviation D. median
138. Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if
A. the difference between the samples is large. B. the standard deviations of the samples are large. C. both samples are drawn from the same population. D. the sample means are larger than the sample medians.
139. To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ________ of the observed differences.
A. mean B. median C. standard deviation D. statistical significance
140. A statistically significant difference between two sample groups is NOT likely to be
A. a reflection of differences between the populations they represent. B. due to chance variation within and between the sample groups. C. observed more than 5 percent of the time the groups are compared. D. observed when the two groups are very large.
141. To clarify whether a statistically significant difference is of any practical importance, researchers indicate a finding’s
A. predict human behavior in a variety of situations. B. perceive order in completely random events.
C. random assignment. D. the double-blind procedure.
163. Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?
A. operational definitions B. overconfidence C. random assignment D. the double-blind procedure
164. Psychologists attempt to let the facts speak for themselves by using an approach that is best described as
A. empirical. B. correlational. C. operational. D. naturalistic.
165. As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that
A. people are unlikely to reveal what they are really thinking. B. most commonsense ideas about human behavior are wrong. C. claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence. D. events never occur randomly.
166. When psychologists insist that “the rat is always right,” they are emphasizing the scientific attitude of
A. humility. B. respect for animals. C. ecological sensitivity. D. enthusiasm for animal research studies.
167. Critical thinkers can best be described as
A. questioning. B. cynical. C. pessimistic. D. impatient.
168. Professor O’Brian has used correlational evidence to reach a potentially incorrect conclusion about a cause-effect relationship. Questioning the validity of drawing this conclusion from the evidence best illustrates
190. A random sample of a large group of people is one in which
A. the number of people included in the sample is determined by chance. B. every person in the large group has an equal chance of being included in the sample. C. personality differences among those in the sample are practically nonexistent. D. all of these situations are true.
191. Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?
A. random assignment B. replication C. naturalistic observation D. random sampling
192. Web site polls and call-in phone surveys often yield unrepresentative results because they fail to use
A. operational definitions. B. random sampling. C. scatterplots. D. double-blind procedures.
193. To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of
A. survey research. B. random assignment. C. experimental methods. D. naturalistic observation.
194. To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?
A. naturalistic observation B. the survey C. the case study D. experimentation
195. Naturalistic observation is most useful for
A. describing behaviors. B. predicting attitudes. C. explaining complex emotions. D. detecting cause-effect relationships


PSY1101 Introduction to Psychology: Foundations University of Ottawa

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