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Psyc 1001 Introduction to Psychology I Measurable Conditions, Events, Characteristics, Carleton University

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Psyc 1001 Introduction to Psychology I Measurable Conditions, Events, Characteristics, Carleton University

1. Which goal of science is most closely associated with determining how to measure fear or identify lying?
a. understanding and prediction
b. measurement and description
c. application and control
d. testing and reporting

2. What do we call any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or
observed in a study?
a. confounds
b. variables
c. correlations
d. hypotheses

3. Forensic profilers use information about known serial killers to make statements about the likely next steps of a
new killer and to anticipate a pattern of behaviour. Which goal of the scientific enterprise does this reflect?
a. application and control
b. measurement and description
c. testing and reporting
d. understanding and prediction

4. Which goals of science are reflected in the use of reinforcement principles to modify a child’s unruly behaviour?
a. understanding and prediction
b. application and control
c. measurement and description
d. testing and reporting

5. What is a theory?
a. a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
b. a preliminary proposal that has yet to be tested
c. a statement of research results that have been proven correct
d. a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables

Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 1
Name: Class: Date:
Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology
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lOMoARcPSD|59606186. There are multiple goals in science, and researchers move between goals at various points in their research. If a
researcher has a lot of data about the measurement of fear reactions and uses those data to generate a theory
about fear, how have the researcher’s goals changed?
a. from application to control
b. from control to description
c. from description to understanding
d. from understanding to application

7. If Dr. Smith has tested a hypothesis and the findings have failed to support the hypothesis, what influence will this
have on Dr. Smith’s theory?
a. It will support the theory because hypotheses attempt to disprove theories.
b. It will have little effect on the theory because hypotheses are merely predictions based on the theory.
c. It will require that the theory be reconsidered because hypotheses allow the theory to be tested.
d. It will cause the theory to be rejected because the hypothesis, and therefore the theory, is unsupported.

8. Which of the following patterns is typical of theory construction?
a. a gradual iterative process that is always subject to revision
b. a process that results in concrete findings that are accepted by other scientists
c. a standard step-like process that quickly moves toward the truth
d. a circular process that is self-fulfilling

9. Dr. Marqueta predicts that people who have received bad news will seek out other people because “misery
loves company.” Which of the following terms characterizes Dr. Marqueta’s prediction about the behaviour of
people?
a. theory
b. hypothesis
c. analysis
d. application

Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 2
Name: Class: Date:
Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology
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lOMoARcPSD|596061810. What is a hypothesis?
a. a conclusion drawn from an experiment
b. a system by which an experiment is designed
c. a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
d. a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables

11. Which of the following is a testable hypothesis?
a. Fear is defined as an emotional reaction to a change in stimuli.
b. Fear is an adaptive response that keeps us safe.
c. Fearful children are less likely to be injured when playing at school.
d. There are likely differences in how people experience fear.

12. Dr. Licciardi predicts that if people are observed while they perform a complex task, they will make more errors.
Which of the following terms is Dr. Licciardi’s prediction an example of?
a. theory
b. inferential statistics
c. hypothesis
d. operational definition

13. Dr. Malm predicts that if teachers ignore students who act up in class, fewer students will act up in class. What is
the scientific term for Dr. Malm’s prediction?
a. operational definition
b. inferential statistics
c. hypothesis
d. theory

14. A researcher is measuring the heart rate of subjects in a study about anxiety, because heart rate changes in a
predictable way when people are anxious. In this study, what is heart rate?
a. negatively correlated with anxiety
b. independent variable
c. confounded variable
d. operational definition of anxiety

Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 3
Name: Class: Date:
Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology
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lOMoARcPSD|596061815. Several researchers are working on different experiments that are designed to test whether a person’s confidence
can be changed over time. They want to be able to compare their results when they are done. They agree that
they will all use the same test in order to measure confidence. Which of the following have the researchers done?
a. They agreed to use the same independent variable.
b. They agreed to use the same hypothesis.
c. They agreed on an operational definition of confidence.
d. They agreed to remove a confounding variable.

16. Which of the following is an operational definition of aggression?
a. Aggression is an emotional response rather than a cognitive response.
b. Aggression is caused by fear.
c. Aggression will lead victims to become more aggressive.
d. Aggression is measured by the number of times one person hits another person.
17. Dr. Dieringer wants to study attachment patterns in single-parent families. She plans to define the strength of
attachment as the time it takes for the parent to respond when the infant starts to cry. Why is this definition
important?
a. It allows others to understand exactly what Dr. Dieringer means by “attachment.”
b. It allows Dr. Dieringer to generate a scientific hypothesis.
c. It prevents research assistants from violating ethical guidelines for psychological research.
d. It requires a double-blind research design.

18. Terry has a theory and has formulated a testable hypothesis. What is the next step that Terry needs to take in the
scientific method?
a. choosing the statistical procedures
b. selecting the research methods
c. refining the theory based on the hypothesis
d. collecting the data

Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 4
Name: Class: Date:
Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology
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lOMoARcPSD|596061819. Dr. Hessels is examining how different people respond to frightening events. She will have participants walk
through a haunted house at a local amusement park, and each participant will be outfitted with a heart monitor.
She will use the changes in heart rate as a measure of stress. What are two ways that such changes in heart rate
can be described?
a. an operational definition and an independent variable
b. confounded variable and a physiological recording
c. a physiological recording and an independent variable
d. an operational definition and a dependent variable

20. In the Featured Study, some individuals crossed a high, fear-arousing bridge, while others crossed a low, nonfrightening bridge. In this study, what do we call the type of bridge?
a. naturalistic observation
b. dependent variable
c. operational definition
d. independent variable

21. In the Featured Study, individuals who had just recently crossed a bridge were met by either a male or a female
confederate of the researcher. What do you call the type of confederate in this study?
a. confounding variable
b. independent variable
c. extraneous variable
d. dependent variable

22. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test that contains ambiguous stimuli that are to be
interpreted by the participant. In the Featured Study, participants crossed a bridge and then completed the TAT.
How did the researchers use participants’ responses to the TAT in this study?
a. as a dependent variable
b. as a confounding variable
c. as an extraneous variable
d. as an independent variable

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Psyc 1001 Introduction to Psychology I Measurable Conditions, Events, Characteristics, Carleton University

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