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Solid Mechanics (MEC2049F) Fundamentals Of Thermodynamics 8th Edition

Sandra Watson
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University of Cape Town

Solid Mechanics (MEC2049F)

In this eighth edition the basic objective of the earlier editions have been retained:
• to present a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamicswhile
retaining an engineering perspective, and in doing so
• to lay the groundwork for subsequent studies in such fields as fluid mechanics, heat
transfer, and statistical thermodynamics, and also
• to prepare the student to effectively use thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.
The presentation is deliberately directed to students. New concepts and definitions are
presented in the context where they are first relevant in a natural progression. The introduction
has been reorganized with a very short introduction followed by the first thermodynamic
properties to be defined (Chapter 1), which are those that can be readily measured: pressure,
specific volume, and temperature. In Chapter 2, tables of thermodynamic properties are introduced,
but only in regard to these measurable properties. Internal energy and enthalpy are
introduced in connection with the energy equation and the first law, entropy with the second
law, and the Helmholtz and Gibbs functions in the chapter on thermodynamic relations.
Many real-world realistic examples have been included in the book to assist the student in
gaining an understanding of thermodynamics, and the problems at the end of each chapter
have been carefully sequenced to correlate with the subject matter, and are grouped and
identified as such. The early chapters in particular contain a large number of examples,
illustrations, and problems, and throughout the book, chapter-end summaries are included,
followed by a set of concept/study problems that should be of benefit to the students.
This is the first edition I have prepared without the thoughtful comments from my
colleague and coauthor, the late Professor Richard E. Sonntag,who substantially contributed
to earlier versions of this textbook. Iamgrateful for the collaboration and fruitful discussions
withmy friend and trusted colleague,whomI have enjoyed the privilege ofworking with over
the last three decades. Professor Sonntag consistently shared generously his vast knowledge
and experience in conjunction with our mutual work on previous editions of this book and
on various research projects, advising PhD students and performing general professional
tasks at our department. In honor of my colleague’s many contributions, Professor Sonntag
still appears as a coauthor of this edition.
Chapter Reorganization and Revisions
The introduction and the first five chapters in the seventh edition have been completely
reorganized. A much shorter introduction leads into the description of some background
material from physics, thermodynamic properties, and units all of which is in the new
Chapter 1. To have the tools for the analysis, the order of the presentation has been kept
…………….. iv⑦PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
from the previous editions, so the behavior of pure substances is presented in Chapter 2,
with a slight expansion and separation of the different domains for solid, liquid, and gas
phase behavior. Some new figures and explanations have been added to show the ideal gas
region as a limit behavior for a vapor at low density.
Discussion aboutwork and heat is nowincluded in Chapter 3 with the energy equation
to emphasize that they are transfer terms of energy explaining how energy for mass at one
location can change because of energy exchange with a mass at another location. The energy
equation is presented first for a control mass as a basic principle accounting for energy in
a control volume as
Change of storage = transfer in − transfer out
The chapter then discusses the formof energy storage as various internal energies associated
with the mass and its structure to better understand how the energy is actually stored. This
also helps in understandingwhy internal energy and enthalpy can vary nonlinearly with temperature,
leading to nonconstant specific heats. Macroscopic potential and kinetic energy
then naturally add to the internal energy for the total energy. The first law of thermodynamics,
which often is taken as synonymous with the energy equation, is shown as a natural
consequence of the energy equation applied to a cyclic process. In this respect, the current
presentation follows modern physics rather than the historical development presented in the
previous editions.
After discussion about the storage of energy, the left-hand side of the energy equation,
the transfer terms aswork and heat transfer are discussed, so thewhole presentation is shorter
than that in the previous editions. This allows less time to be spent on the material used for
preparation before the energy equation is applied to real systems.
All the balance equations for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy follow the same
format to show the uniformity in the basic principles and make the concept something to
be understood and not merely memorized. This is also the reason to use the names energy
equation and entropy equation for the first and second laws of thermodynamics to stress
that they are universally valid, not just used in the field of thermodynamics but apply to all
situations and fields of study with no exceptions. Clearly, special cases require extensions
not covered in this text, like effects of surface tension in drops or for liquid in small pores,
relativity, and nuclear processes, to mention a few.
The energy equation applied to a general control volume is retained from the previous
edition with the addition of a section on multiflow devices. Again, this is done to reinforce
to students that the analysis is done by applying the basic principles to systems under
investigation. This means that the actual mathematical form of the general laws follows the
sketches and figures of the system, and the analysis is not a question about finding a suitable
formula in the text.
To show the generality of the entropy equation, a small example is presented applying
the energy and entropy equations to heat engines and heat pumps shown in Chapter 6.
This demonstrates that the historical presentation of the second law in Chapter 5 can be
completely substituted by the postulation of the entropy equation and the existence of the
absolute temperature scale. Carnot cycle efficiencies and the fact that real devices have
lower efficiency follow from the basic general laws. Also, the direction of heat transfer
from a higher temperature domain toward a lower temperature domain is predicted by the
entropy equation due to the requirement of a positive entropy generation. These are examples
that show the application of the general laws for specific cases and improve the student’s
understanding of the material.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. PREFACE v⑦…………….
The rest of the chapters have been updated to improve the student’s understanding
of the material. The word availability has been substituted by exergy as a general concept,
though it is not strictly in accordance with the original definition. The chapters concerning
cycles have been expanded, with a fewdetails for specific cycles and some extensions shown
to tie the theory to industrial applications with real systems. The same is done for Chapter 13
with combustion to emphasize an understanding of the basic physics ofwhat happens,which
may not be evident in the more abstract definition of terms like enthalpy of combustion.
Web-Based Material
Several new documents will be available fromWiley’s website for the book. The following
material will be accessible for students, with additional material reserved for instructors of
the course.
Notes for classical thermodynamics. A very short set of notes covers the basic thermodynamic
analysis with the general laws (continuity, energy, and entropy equations) and
some of the specific laws like device equations, process equations, and so on. This is useful
for students doing review of the course or for exam preparation, as it gives a comprehensive
presentation in a condensed form.
Extended set of study examples. This document includes a collection of additional
examples for students to study. These examples have slightly longer and more detailed
solutions than the examples printed in the book and thus are excellent for self-study. There
are about 8 SI unit problems with 3–4 English unit problems for each chapter covering most
of the material in the chapters.
How-to notes. Frequently asked questions are listed for each of the set of subject areas
in the book with detailed answers. These are questions that are difficult to accommodate in
the book. Examples:
How do I find a certain state for R-410a in the B-section tables?
How do I make a linear interpolation?
Should I use internal energy (u) or enthalpy (h) in the energy equation?
When can I use the ideal gas law?
Instructor material. The material for instructors covers typical syllabus and homework
assignments for a first and a second course in thermodynamics. Additionally, examples of
two standard 1-hour midterm exams and a 2-hour final exam are given for typical Thermodynamics
I and Thermodynamics II classes.



Solid Mechanics (MEC2049F) Fundamentals Of Thermodynamics 8th Edition

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