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Summary of all course material Nursing (NSG3103C) Algonquin College

Sandra Watson
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Summary of all course material Nursing (NSG3103C) Algonquin College

Grand Nursing Theories

– Most complex and widest in scope of the levels of theory
– Attempt to explain broad areas within the discipline
– Composed of relatively abstract concepts
– Developed through thoughtful appraisal of existing ideas
– Provide a background of philosophical reasoning
– Two paradigms: totality and simultaneity A. Human Needs Theories (particulate–deterministic):
– Humans are viewed a reducible (sum of parts), biopsychosocial-spiritual being that react to their environment in a causal way.  Change is linear, causal and predictable.
– Earliest theorists drew from the empirical (positivist) worldview focusing on meeting needs and were developed to distinguish nursing from medicine.
1) Florence Nightingale  Environmental Theory: focus on improved cleanliness, ventilation, warming, light, noise,
bedding (environment was the central concept)  Nursing is based on compassion, observation, experience, statistical data, sanitation, nutrition, and administrative skills.  Nursing— an art that serves to “put the constitution in such a state that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease.”  Health—“to be well and to be able to use well every power we have”  A nurse may be anyone who had “charge of the personal health of somebody.”

2) Virginia Henderson
– Nursing is “patient centered and organized around nursing problems.”  The nurse was the focus and the theory related to the nursing metaparadigm.  Nursing—“to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery . . . that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary
strength, will or knowledge . . .”  Health—inferred to be a balance in all realms of human life
– Person—“patient” as someone who needs nursing care  Environment—maintaining a supportive environment (14 activities)

3) Dorothea Orem
– Self-Care Deficit Theory (three nested theories: Theory of self-care, Theory of self-care deficit and Theory of nursing system)  When therapeutic self-care demand exceeds self-care agency, a self-care deficit exists and
nursing is needed.  Nursing—”an art through which the practitioner gives specialized assistance to persons with
disabilities to meet needs for self-care”  Health—“being structurally and functionally whole or sound”; also a state that encompasses both the health of individuals and groups
– Person—“men, women, and children cared for”; objects of nursing care – Environment—has physical, chemical, and biological features (includes the family, culture, and community)
4) Betty Neuman
– The Neuman Systems Model (stress and reaction to stress)  Client is an open system and exchanges between the client/system and environment are  reciprocal.
– Stressors are stimuli that produce tensions and might cause system instability.  Nursing is provided to achieve optimal stability.  Concept of “prevention as intervention” with multiple lines of resistance  Client variables (physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual) are considered in care.
– Nursing—Major concern is to maintain client system stability through assessing environmental and other stressors to assist the client in maintaining wellness.  Health—“a continuum; wellness and illness are at opposite ends”
– Person—“human beings” as a composite of variables (physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual)  Environment—“both internal and external forces surrounding the client, influencing and being
influenced by the client at any point in time”




Summary of all course material Nursing (NSG3103C) Algonquin College

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