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Which of the Following Statements is True About the Term

John Marsh
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Which of the following statements is true about the term research hierarchy in EBP?

a. Tightly controlled experiments reside at the top, regardless of the EBP question.

b. Qualitative studies are the most likely to reside at the top for most EBP questions.

c. Where a type of study resides on a research hierarchy depends on the type of EBP question being asked.

d. All types of research designs are relevant to all types of EBP questions.


Which of the following statements are true about qualitative studies?

a. They are just as likely to employ tightly controlled, inflexible designs as are quantitative studies.

b. They tend to employ flexible designs and subjective methods—often with small samples of research participants—in seeking to generate tentative new insights, deep understandings, and theoretically rich observations.

c. They are devalued in EBP.

d. They are most applicable when we seek to determine whether a particular intervention is really the cause of a particular outcome.

e. Both b and c are true.


To infer that an intervention is the real cause of a change:

a. we must make sure that the change preceded the onset of the intervention

b. it is sufficient to know that the intervention is correlated with the change.

c. we must ascertain whether the change is correlated with the intervention, learn that it did not precede the intervention, and eliminate plausible alternative explanations for the change.

d. rely on studies that avoided the use of random assignment to treatment conditions.


Systematic reviews and meta-analyses:

a. reside at the top of the evidentiary hierarchy for answering EBP questions about the effectiveness of interventions, programs, or policies.

b. reside below randomized experiments because they take replications into account.

c. are identical, regardless of what statistics they employ.

d. are all unbiased and of equal quality

e. a, c, and d are all true.


Which of the following statements is/are true about the pursuit of logic and objectivity in research?

a. Some scholars reject the pursuit of a knowable objective reality.

b. Some scholars argue that even though every individual has his or her own subjective take on social reality, it still is worth trying to minimize bias in research.

c. Some scholars have depicted the notion that just because perfect objectivity is an unattainable ideal we should therefore not even try to minimize bias in research as fashionable nonsense.

d. Some scholars have critiqued relativism as logically self-contradictory because if all views of social reality are equally valid, then how can relativists proclaim their view as the most correct one?

e. All of the above.


Which of the following statements is/are an advantage of systematic reviews?

a. They can shed light on the external validity of the findings of an individual study.

b. They can help make sense out of a bewildering array of findings from different types of studies that produced inconsistent results.

c. They can apply statistical techniques that merge the findings of many different studies.

d. All of the above.


Which of the following statements is/are correct about exclusion and inclusion criteria in systematic reviews?

a. They might pertain to methodological characteristics of studies.

b. They might pertain to the characteristics of study participants.

c. They might be too narrow or restrictive.

d. All of the above.


Which of the following statements is/are correct about the interpretation of a correlation that equals .30?

a. It might be clinically significant

b. It is too weak to be clinically significant

c. It is strong enough to assure clinical significance

d. None of the above


Which of the following statements is/are true about the PRISMA group?

a. It was formed in recognition of the poor quality of some of the earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses being published

b. It provides a Web site with information on critically appraising systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

c. Its checklist includes a section on the funding of the systematic review or meta-analysis.

d. All of the above.


If an experimental group’s mean of 60 is a better outcome than the control group’s mean of 55, and the standard deviation is 10, then the d-index equals:

a. .50

b. 5.0

c. 2.0

d. .05

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